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Universalism refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal ("applying to all") application or applicability. The exact meaning of the term is different in different religions.

In Christianity, Universalism is the belief that all people will eventually be saved and reconciled to God. It generally accepts the idea of a real Heaven, but denies the existence of an eternal Hell.


In Christianity, Universalism refers to the belief that all humans can be saved through Jesus Christ and eventually come to harmony in God's kingdom. A related doctrine, apokatastasis, is the belief that all mortal beings will be reconciled to God, including Satan and his fallen angels. Universalism was a widely held but controversial view among theologians in Early Christianity: In the first five or six centuries of Christianity, there were six known theological schools, of which four (Alexandria, Antioch, Caesarea, and Edessa) were universalist, one (Ephesus) accepted conditional immortality, and one (Carthage or Rome) taught the endless punishment of the lost.[1] The two major theologians opposing it were Tertullian and Augustine.

In the 17th-century and 18th-century Europe and America, other Christian reformers came to believe in a universally loving God and felt that God would grant all human beings salvation. They became known as the Universalists. [2]


Hindu Universalism denotes the ideology that all religions are true and therefore worthy of toleration and respect. Veneration for all other religions was articulated by Gandhi:

"After long study and experience, I have come to the

conclusion that [1] all religions are true; [2] all religions have some error in them; [3] all religions are almost as dear to me as my own Hinduism, in as much as all human beings should be as dear to one as one's own close relatives. My own veneration for other faiths is the same as that for my own faith;

therefore no thought of conversion is possible." (M. K. Gandhi, All Men Are Brothers: Life and Thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi as told in his own words, Paris, UNESCO 1958, p 60.)

In Ananda Marga, a branch of Hinduism, Universalism refers to the idea that energy and matter are evolved from cosmic consciousness. Thus, all created beings are of one universal family. This is an expansion of humanism to include everything as family, based on the fundamental truth that the universe is a thought projection from the Supreme.


Judaism teaches that God chose the Jewish people to be in a unique covenant with God, and one of their beliefs is that Jewish people were charged by the Torah with a specific mission — to be a light unto the nations, and to exemplify the covenant with God as described in the Torah to other nations. Not explicitly a Universalist theology, this view, however, does not preclude a belief that God also has a relationship with other peoples — rather, Judaism holds that God had entered into a covenant with all mankind as Noachides, and that Jews and non-Jews alike have a relationship with God. [3]



Muslims believe that God has sent revelations to prophets throughout human history, of which the Holy Qur'an delivered to Muhammad is the last, intended to reiterate and bring final clarity to God's instructions, in order to bring peace and harmony to humanity through Islam (submission to God). Islam expressly recognizes the legitimacy of prior monotheistic religions, such as Judaism and Christianity, with the caveat that they also believe that these religions were corrupted and hence supposedly no longer reflect their original intent.

Muhammad and his successors in the Khilafat sought to put into practice the regime of justice commanded by God in the Qur'an to ensure the security of the lives and property of non-Muslims under the dhimmi system, as well as according them certain rights of worship. The Qur'an identifies Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and "Sabi'un" or "baptists" (usually taken as a reference to the Mandeans and related Mesopotamian groups) as "People of the Book" entitled to recognition and protection as religious communities. At various times, this status has been extended to other religious groups, such as Manichaeans and Hindus, although other Muslims have disagreed with their dhimmi status, and even rejected it for Zoroastrians and Mandeans.

Thus Islam carries a kind of universalist idea in its core concept of God's revealing work to all humankind, even though for most Muslims this does not entail the belief that all will be saved in the end. It is believed that Islam, as the final form of religion God revealed, offers the best system by which salvation can be attained, and its worldwide spread is seen as a development towards a final unity of humankind within this religion. The Muslim ideal of universal brotherhood is the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) prescribed by Islam.

Each year, close to three million people from every corner of the globe assemble in Mecca to perform Hajj and worship God. No individual can be identified as a king or pauper because every man is dressed in ihram clothing. Although some forms of Islam espouse predestinarian ideas, most schools of thought within the religion place ultimate responsibility with individual human decision; and since Islam has no concept of human debilitation comparable to the Christian concept of original sin, in theory, there is nothing preventing a universalist resolution of human fate within the Islamic belief system.


Clear universalist trends appear in the Zoroastrian scriptures, especially in the Farvardin Yasht where the followers of Zarathushtra are enjoined to revere the wise and righteous of all countries. During the Parthian era, Zoroastrianism had strong links with Hellenistic cults, and its dualistic teachings were blended into early Christian Gnosticism. Even during the Sasanian era, despite the heavy orthodox stances imposed by the Zoroastrian clergy, representatives of diverse religious and philosophical schools were occasionally gathered at Court to discuss theological questions with the most learned Zoroastrian mobeds (priests). By the end of the nineteenth century, many Parsis (Indian Zoroastrians) were influenced by Madame Blavatsky's Theosophy, with its universalist esotericism. Lately(2008), a Universalist Zoroastrian group, Ohrmazd Mandal (The Circle of God), was started by Michele Moramarco, an Italian scholar who had been long connected with British Unitarianism and American Universalism. The devotional book of this group, though based on the Avesta (the Zoroastrian Holy Scripture),includes prayers and texts from different spiritual sources (Christian, Mandaean, Manichaean, Buddhist, Hindu, etc.)

New Thought

Unity, Religious Science, Divine Science are denominations within the New thought movement. Each teaches that there is a common thread of truth at the heart of all religions. New Thought is an ever-evolving belief system which will incorporate Truth where ever it is found, hence the name New Thought. All is God, But God transcends all.


I believe in the fundamental Truth of all great religions of the world. I believe they are all God given and I believe they were necessary for the people to whom these religions were revealed. And I believe that if only we could all of us read the scriptures of the different faiths from the standpoint of the followers of these faiths, we should find that they were at the bottom all one and were all helpful to one another. - M K Gandhi[4]
We have never been willing to sacrifice such ideals at the price of chains or slavery. -Patrick Henry [5]
The path that leads to peace will be, no doubt, long and arduous, but we cannot even begin the journey until we pass through the gate. Above the gate is the required universal affirmation: ""On the path that leads to peace we are all members of one human family, brothers and sisters one of another. -Knapp Rev. Ron Knapp . . . Unitarianism [5]

See also


  1. The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1953, vol. 12, p. 96; retrieved 30/04/09
  2. Unitarian Universalism: A Research Guide By: Neal Wyatt ; Tierney V Dwyer ; Tierney V Dwyer Format: Article Year: 2008 Published in: Reference & User Services Quarterly SpringDF2008, Vol. 47 Issue 3, p210-214 5p 10949054 ][F;[]G=PY[GPGOPFG[A][]P[H[FDC Database: Academic Search Premier
  3. Covenant-Jewish Universalism and Particularism By: David Polish Format: Article Year: 1985 Published in: Judaism Summer85, Vol. 34 Issue 3, p284 17p 00225762 Database: Academic Search Premier
  4. The book Mind of Mahatma Gandhi. H, 16-12-1934, p. 5-6
  5. 5.0 5.1 Perspectives on World Peace the Rev. Ronald Knapp Format: Article Year: 1984 Published in: Omaha World — Herald Dec 19, 1984 () 1 Database: ProQuest Newsstand

8. E Casara, ed., Universalism in America (1984).

Further reading

  • Ankerl, Guy. Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 
  • Palmquist, Stephen, "Christianity as the Universal Religion", Chapter Eight in Stephen Palmquist, Kant's Critical Religion (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2000).

External links

da:Universalisme (teologi) ga:An tUilíochas ia:Universalismo pt:Universalismo fi:Universalismi zh:普世主义