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Toledot, Toldot, or Tol'doth (תּוֹלְדֹת — Hebrew for “line” or “story,” the second word and the first distinctive word in the parshah) is the sixth weekly Torah portion (parashah) in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. It constitutes Genesis 25:19–28:9. Jews in the Diaspora read it the sixth Sabbath after Simchat Torah, generally in November or early December.

Isaac Blessing Jacob (painting by Giuseppe Ribera)


Esau and Jacob Presented to Isaac (painting by Benjamin West)

Esau and Jacob

Isaac was 40 years old when he married Rebekah, and when she proved barren, Isaac pleaded with God on her behalf, and God allowed Rebekah to conceive. (Genesis 25:20–21) As twins struggled in her womb, she inquired of God, who answered her that two separate nations were in her womb, one mightier than the other, and the older would serve the younger. (Genesis 25:22–23) When Rebekah gave birth, the first twin emerged red and hairy, so they named him Esau, and his brother emerged holding Esau's heel, so they named him Jacob. (Genesis 25:24–26) Isaac was 60 years old when they were born. (Genesis 25:26)

Esau Selling His Birthright (painting circa 1627 by Hendrick ter Brugghen)

Esau became a skillful hunter and outdoorsman, but Jacob remained a mild man and camp-bound. (Genesis 25:27) Isaac favored Esau for his game, but Rebekah favored Jacob. (Genesis 25:28) Once when Jacob was cooking, Esau returned to the camp famished and demanded some of Jacob's red stew. (Genesis 25:29–30) Jacob demanded that Esau first sell him his birthright, and Esau did so with an oath, spurning his birthright. (Genesis 25:31–34)

Wife as sister

Another famine struck the land, and Isaac went to the house of the Philistine King Abimelech in Gerar. (Genesis 26:1) God told Isaac not to go down to Egypt, but to stay in the land that God would show him, for God would remain with him, bless him, and assign the land to him and his numerous heirs, as God had sworn to Abraham, who had obeyed God and kept God's commandments. (Genesis 26:2–5)

Isaac, A Lover of Peace (illustration from a Bible card published 1906 by the Providence Lithograph Company)

When the men of Gerar asked Isaac about his beautiful wife, he said that she was his sister out of fear that the men might kill him on account of her. (Genesis 26:7) But looking out of the window, Abimelech saw Isaac fondling Rebekah, and Abimelech summoned Isaac to complain that Isaac had called her his sister. (Genesis 26:8–9) Isaac explained that he had done so to save his life. (Genesis 26:9) Abimelech complained that one of the people might have lain with her, and Isaac would have brought guilt upon the Philistines, and Abimelech charged the people not to molest Isaac or Rebekah, on pain of death. (Genesis 26:10–11)

Isaac and Abimilech Swear an Oath of Friendship to Each Other (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

God blessed Isaac, who reaped bountiful harvests and grew very wealthy, to the envy of the Philistines. (Genesis 26:12–14) The Philistines stopped up all the wells that Abraham's servants had dug, and Abimelech sent Isaac away, for his household had become too big. (Genesis 26:15–16) So Isaac left to settle in the wadi of Gerar, where he dug anew the wells that Abraham's servants had dug and called them by the same names that his father had. (Genesis 26:17–18) But when Isaac's servants dug two new wells, the herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with Isaac's herdsmen and claimed them for their own, so Isaac named those wells Esek and Sitnah. (Genesis 26:19–21) Isaac moved on and dug a third well, and they did not quarrel over it, so he named it Rehoboth. (Genesis 26:22)

Isaac went to Beersheba, and that night God appeared to Isaac, telling Isaac not to fear, for God was with him, and would bless him and increase his offspring for Abraham's sake. (Genesis 26:23–24) So Isaac built an altar and invoked the Lord by name. (Genesis 26:25) And Isaac pitched his tent there and his servants began digging a well. (Genesis 26:25)

Then Abimelech, Ahuzzath his councilor, and Phicol his general came to Isaac, and Isaac asked them why they had come, since they had driven Isaac away. (Genesis 26:26–27) They answered that they now recognized that God had been with Isaac, and sought a treaty that neither would harm the other. (Genesis 26:28–29) Isaac threw a feast for the Philistines, and the next morning, they exchanged oaths and the Philistines departed from him in peace. (Genesis 26:30–31) Later in the day, Isaac's servants told him that they had found water, and Isaac named the well Shibah, so that place became known as Beersheba. (Genesis 26:32–33)

When Esau was 40 years old, he married two Hittite women, Judith and Basemath, causing bitterness for Isaac and Rebekah. (Genesis 26:34–35)

Esau Going for Venison (illustration from the 1890 Holman Bible)

Isaac’s blessing

When Isaac was old and his sight had dimmed, he called Esau and asked him to hunt some game and prepare a dish, so that Isaac might give him his innermost blessing before he died. (Genesis 27:1–4) Rebekah had been listening, and when Esau departed, she instructed Jacob to fetch her two choice kids so that she might prepare a dish that Jacob could take to Isaac and receive his blessing. (Genesis 27:5–10) Jacob complained to Rebekah that since Esau was hairy, Isaac might touch him, discover him to be a trickster, and curse him. (Genesis 27:11–12) But Rebekah called the curse upon herself, insisting that Jacob do as she directed. (Genesis 27:13) So Jacob got the kids, and Rebekah prepared a dish, had Jacob put on Esau's best clothes, and covered Jacob's hands and neck with the kid's skins. (Genesis 27:14–17)

Isaac Blessing Jacob (illustration by Gustave Doré)

When Jacob went to Isaac, he asked which of his sons had arrived, and Jacob said that he was Esau and asked for Isaac's blessing. (Genesis 27:18–19) Isaac asked him how he had succeeded so quickly, and he said that God had granted him good fortune. (Genesis 27:20) Isaac asked Jacob to come closer that Isaac might feel him to determine whether he was really Esau. (Genesis 27:21) Isaac felt him and wondered that the voice was Jacob's, but the hands were Esau's. (Genesis 27:22) Isaac questioned if it was really Esau, and when Jacob assured him, Isaac asked for the game and Jacob served him the kids and wine. (Genesis 27:24–25) Isaac bade his son to come close and kiss him, and Isaac smelled his clothes, remarking that he smelled like the fields. (Genesis 27:26–27) Isaac blessed Jacob, asking God to give him abundance, make peoples serve him, make him master over his brothers, curse those who cursed him, and bless those who blessed him. (Genesis 27:27–29)

Isaac upon Esau's Return (fresco by Giotto di Bondone)

Just as Jacob left, Esau returned from the hunt, prepared a dish for Isaac, and asked Isaac for his blessing. (Genesis 27:30–31) Isaac asked who he was, and Esau said that it was he. (Genesis 27:32) Isaac trembled and asked who it was then who had served him, received his blessing, and now must remain blessed. (Genesis 27:33) Esau burst into sobbing, and asked Isaac to bless him too, but Isaac answered that Jacob had taken Esau's blessing with guile. (Genesis 27:34–35) Esau asked whether Jacob had been so named that he might supplant Esau twice, first taking his birthright and now his blessing. (Genesis 27:36) Esau asked Isaac whether he had not reserved a blessing for Esau, but Isaac answered that he had made Jacob master over him and sustained him with grain and wine, and asked what, then, he could still do for Esau. (Genesis 27:37) Esau wept and pressed Isaac to bless him, too, so Isaac blessed him to enjoy the fat of the earth and the dew of heaven, to live by his sword and to serve his brother, but also to break his yoke. (Genesis 27:38–40)

Esau harbored a grudge against Jacob, and told himself that he would kill Jacob upon Isaac's death. (Genesis 27:41) When Esau's words reached Rebekah, she told Jacob to flee to Haran and her brother Laban and remain there until Esau's fury subsided and Rebekah fetched him from there, so that Rebekah would not lose both sons in one day. (Genesis 27:42–45) Rebekah told Isaac her disgust with the idea that Jacob might marry a Hittite woman, so Isaac sent for Jacob, blessed him, and instructed him not to take a Canaanite wife, but to go to Padan-aram and the house of Bethuel to take a wife from among Laban's daughters. (Genesis 27:46–28:2) And Isaac blessed Jacob with fertility and the blessing of Abraham, that he might possess the land that God had assigned to Abraham. (Genesis 28:3–4)

When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and charged him not to take a Canaanite wife, Esau realized that the Canaanite women displeased Isaac, and Esau married Ishmael’s daughter Mahalath. (Genesis 28:5–9)

In classical rabbinic interpretation

Genesis chapter 25

Selling the Birthright (1640 painting by Matthias Stom)

Reading the words, “and she went to inquire of the Lord,” in Genesis 25:22, a midrash wondered how Rebekah asked God about her pregnancy, and whether there were synagogues and houses of study in those days. The midrash concluded that Rebekah went to the school of Shem and Eber to inquire. The midrash deduced that this teaches that to visit a Sage is like visiting the Divine Presence. (Genesis Rabbah 63:6.)

Esau Sells His Birthright for Pottage of Lentils (illustration from the 1728 Figures de la Bible)

Rabbi Haninah taught that Esau paid great attention to his parent (horo), his father, whom he supplied with meals, as Genesis 25:28 reports, “Isaac loved Esau, because he ate of his venison.” Rabbi Samuel the son of Rabbi Gedaliah concluded that God decided to reward Esau for this. When Jacob offered Esau gifts, Esau answered Jacob in Genesis 33:9, “I have enough (רָב, rav); do not trouble yourself.” So God declared that with the same expression that Esau thus paid respect to Jacob, God would command Jacob's descendants not to trouble Esau's descendants, and thus God told the Israelites in Deuteronomy 2:3, “You have circled this mountain (הָר, har) long enough (רַב, rav).” (Deuteronomy Rabbah 1:17.)

A Tanna taught in a Baraita that the day recounted in Genesis 25:29–34 on which Esau spurned his birthright was also the day on which Abraham died, and Jacob was cooking lentils to comfort Isaac. In the Land of Israel they taught in the name of Rabbah bar Mari that it was appropriate to cook lentils because just as the lentil has no mouth (no groove like other legumes), so the mourner has no mouth to talk but sits silently. Others explained that just as the lentil is round, so mourning comes round to all people. (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 16b.)

Jacob Offers a Dish of Lentels to Esau for the Birthright (17th Century painting after Gioacchino Assereto)

Rabbi Johanan taught that Esau committed five sins on the day recounted in Genesis 25:29–34. Rabbi Johanan deduced from the similar use of the words “the field” in Genesis 25:29 and in connection with the betrothed maiden in Deuteronomy 22:27 that Esau dishonored a betrothed maiden. Rabbi Johanan deduced from the similar use of the word “faint” in Genesis 25:29 and in connection with murderers in Jeremiah 4:31 that Esau committed a murder. Rabbi Johanan deduced from the similar use of the word “this” in Genesis 25:32 and in the words “This is my God” in Exodus 15:2 that Esau denied belief in God. Rabbi Johanan deduced from Esau's words, “Behold, I am on the way to die,” in Genesis 25:32 that Esau denied the resurrection of the dead. And for Esau's fifth sin, Rabbi Johanan cited the report of Genesis 25:34 that “Esau despised his birthright.” (Babylonian Talmud Bava Batra 16b.)

Genesis chapter 26

A midrash cited Genesis 26:1 to show that there is double rejoicing in the case of a righteous one who is the child of a righteous one. (Genesis Rabbah 63:1.) The Mishnah and Tosefta deduced from Genesis 26:5 that Abraham kept the entire Torah even before it was revealed. (Mishnah Kiddushin 4:14; Tosefta Kiddushin 5:21; Babylonian Talmud Kiddushin 82a.)

The Tosefta deduced from the contrast between the plenty indicated in Genesis 24:1 and the famine indicated in Genesis 26:1 that God gave the people food and drink and a glimpse of the world to come while the righteous Abraham was alive, so that the people might understand what they had lost when he was gone. (Tosefta Sotah 10:5.) The Tosefta reported that when Abraham was alive, the wells gushed forth water, but the Philistines filled the wells with earth (as reported in Genesis 26:15), for after Abraham died the wells no longer gushed forth water, and the Philistines filled them so that they would not pose a hazard to travelers. But when Isaac came along, the wells gushed water again (as indicated in Genesis 26:18–19) and there was plenty again (as indicated in Genesis 26:12) (Tosefta Sotah 10:6.)

Interpreting God's command to Isaac in Genesis 26:2 not to go to Egypt, Rabbi Hoshaya taught that God told Isaac that he was (by virtue of his near sacrifice in Genesis 22) a burnt-offering without blemish, and as a burnt offering became unfit if it was taken outside of the Temple grounds, so would Isaac become unfit if he went outside of the Promised Land. (Genesis Rabbah 64:3.)

Rabbi Dosetai ben Yannai said in the name of Rabbi Meir that when God told Isaac that God would bless him for Abraham's sake (Genesis 26:24), Isaac interpreted that one earns a blessing only through one's actions, and he arose and sowed, as reported in Genesis 26:12. (Tosefta Berakhot 6:8.)

Jacob and Rebekah (illustration from a Bible card published by the Providence Lithograph Company)

Jacob Deceives Isaac (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Genesis chapter 27

Rabbi Eleazar taught that Isaac's blindness, reported in Genesis 27:1, was caused by his looking at the wicked Esau. But Rabbi Isaac taught that Abimelech's curse of Sarah caused her son Isaac's blindness. Rabbi Isaac read the words, “it is for you a covering (kesut) of the eyes,” in Genesis 20:16 not as kesut, “covering,” but as kesiyat, “blinding.” Rabbi Isaac concluded that one should not consider a small matter the curse of even an ordinary person. (Babylonian Talmud Megillah 28a; see also Babylonian Talmud Bava Kamma 93a.) Alternatively, a midrash interpreted the words “his eyes were dim from seeing” in Genesis 27:1 to teach that Isaac's eyesight dimmed as a result of his near sacrifice in Genesis 22, for when Abraham bound Isaac, the ministering angels wept, as Isaiah 33:7 says, “Behold, their valiant ones cry without, the angels of peace weep bitterly,” and tears dropped from the angels’ eyes into Isaac's, leaving their mark and causing Isaac's eyes to dim when he became old. (Genesis Rabbah 65:10.)

Rabbi Eleazar taught that deceptive speech is like idolatry. Rabbi Eleazar deduced the similarity from the common use of the word “deceiver” to describe Jacob's deception his father in Genesis 27:12, where Jacob says, “I shall seem to him as a deceiver,” and to describe idols in Jeremiah 10:15, where idols are described as “the work of deceivers.” (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 92a.)

But the Gemara cited Jacob as the exemplar of one who, in the words of Psalm 15:3, “has no slander on his tongue,” as Jacob's protest to Rebekah in Genesis 27:12, “I shall seem to him as a deceiver,” demonstrated that Jacob did not take readily to deception. (Babylonian Talmud Makkot 24a.)

Isaac Is Deceived by Jacob (woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld from the 1860 Die Bibel in Bildern)

Rabbi Johanan taught that when Jacob explained his rapid success in obtaining the meat by saying in Genesis 27:20 that it was “because the Lord your God sent me good speed,” he was like a raven bringing fire to his nest, courting disaster. For when Jacob said “the Lord your God sent me good speed,” Isaac thought to himself that he knew that Esau did not customarily mention the name of God, and if the person before him did so, he must not have been Esau but Jacob. Consequently, Isaac told him in Genesis 27:21, “Come near, I pray, that I may feel you, my son.” (Genesis Rabbah 65:19.)

Isaac Blessing Jacob (painting by Govert Flinck)

Reading Isaac's observation in Genesis 27:27, “See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field that the Lord has blessed,” Rav Judah the son of Rav Samuel bar Shilat said in the name of Rav that Jacob smelled like an apple orchard. (Babylonian Talmud Taanit 29b.) Rabbi Judah ben Pazi interpreted Isaac's blessing of Jacob with dew in Genesis 27:28 merely to pass along to his son what God had deeded to his father Abraham for all time. (Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 55b.) And Rabbi Ishmael deduced from Isaac's curse of those who cursed Jacob and blessing of those who blessed Jacob in Genesis 27:29 that Jews need not respond to those who curse or bless them, for the Torah has already decreed the response. (Jerusalem Talmud Berakhot 85b.)

Interpreting why in Genesis 27:33 “Isaac trembled very exceedingly,” Rabbi Johanan observed that it was surely unusual for a man who has two sons to tremble when one goes out and the other comes in. Rabbi Johanan taught that Isaac trembled because when Esau came in, Gehenna came in with him. Rabbi Aha said that the walls of the house began to seethe from the heat of Gehenna. Hence Genesis 27:33 asks, “who then (אֵפוֹא, eifo)?” for Isaac asked who would be roast (leafot) in Gehenna, him or Jacob? (Genesis Rabbah 77:2.)

Rabbi Hama ben Hanina interpreted the question “who then?” in Genesis 27:33 to ask who then intervened between Isaac and God that Jacob should receive the blessings. Rabbi Hama ben Hanina taught that Isaac thereby hinted at Rebekah's intervention. (Genesis Rabbah 77:2.)

Reading Genesis 27:41, Rabbi Eleazar contrasted Esau's jealousy with Reuben's magnanimity. As Genesis 25:33 reports, Esau voluntarily sold his birthright, but as Genesis 27:41 says, “Esau hated Jacob,” and as Genesis 27:36 says, “And he said, ‘Is not he rightly named Jacob? for he has supplanted me these two times.’” In Reuben’s case, Joseph took Reuben’s birthright from him against his will, as 1 Chronicles 5:1 reports, “for as much as he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph.” Nonetheless, Reuben was not jealous of Joseph, as Genesis 37:21 reports, “And Reuben heard it, and delivered him out of their hand.” (Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 7b.)

Genesis chapter 28

A Tanna taught in a Baraita that the exalted position of a groom atones for his sins. The Gemara cited Genesis 28:9 as a proof text. The Gemara noted that Genesis 28:9 reports that “Esau went to Ishmael, and took Machalat the daughter of Ishmael, as a wife,” but Genesis 36:3 identifies Esau's wife as “Basemat, Ishmael's daughter.” The Gemara explained that the name Machalat is cognate with the Hebrew word for forgiveness, mechilah, and thus deduced that Genesis 28:9 teaches that Esau's sins were forgiven upon his marriage. (Jerusalem Talmud Bikkurim 23b.)


According to Maimonides and Sefer ha-Chinuch, there are no commandments in the parshah. (Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. Cairo, Egypt, 1170–1180. Reprinted in Maimonides. The Commandments: Sefer Ha-Mitzvoth of Maimonides. Translated by Charles B. Chavel, 2 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1967. ISBN 0-900689-71-4. Sefer HaHinnuch: The Book of [Mitzvah] Education. Translated by Charles Wengrov, 1:87. 1991. ISBN 0-87306-179-9.)

Malachi (Greek Orthodox icon)


The haftarah for the parshah is:

In the liturgy

In the Blessing after Meals (Birkat Hamazon), at the close of the fourth blessing (of thanks for God's goodness), Jews allude to God's blessing of the Patriarchs described in Gensis 24:1, 27:33, and 33:11. (Menachem Davis. The Schottenstein Edition Siddur for the Sabbath and Festivals with an Interlinear Translation, 172. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2002. ISBN 1-57819-697-3. Reuven Hammer. Or Hadash: A Commentary on Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat and Festivals, 342. New York: The Rabbinical Assembly, 2003. ISBN 0-916219-20-8.)

The Weekly Maqam

In the Weekly Maqam, Sephardi Jews each week base the songs of the services on the content of that week's parsha. For Parsha Toledot, Sephardi Jews apply Maqam Mahour, the maqam that portrays emotional instability and anger. This maqam is similar to Maqam Rast in tone. It is appropriate, because in this parsha, Esau portrays these character traits as he loses out on the major blessings.

Further reading

The parshah has parallels or is discussed in these sources:



Early nonrabbinic

Classical rabbinic

  • Mishnah: Mishnah Kiddushin 4:14. Land of Israel, circa 200 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Mishnah: A New Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 499. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-300-05022-4.
  • Tosefta: Berakhot 6:8; Sotah 10:5–6; Kiddushin 5:21. Land of Israel, circa 300 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., The Tosefta: Translated from the Hebrew, with a New Introduction. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 1:39, 876, 947. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Pub., 2002. ISBN 1-56563-642-2.
  • Sifre to Deuteronomy 2:3. Land of Israel, circa 250–350 C.E. Reprinted in, e.g., Sifre to Deuteronomy: An Analytical Translation. Translated by Jacob Neusner, 1:26. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987. ISBN 1-55540-145-7.




  • Rashi. Commentary. Genesis 25–28. Troyes, France, late 11th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., Rashi. The Torah: With Rashi’s Commentary Translated, Annotated, and Elucidated. Translated and annotated by Yisrael Isser Zvi Herczeg, 1:271–307. Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 1995. ISBN 0-89906-026-9.
  • Judah Halevi. Kuzari. 2:80. Toledo, Spain, 1130–1140. Reprinted in, e.g., Jehuda Halevi. Kuzari: An Argument for the Faith of Israel. Intro. by Henry Slonimsky, 128. New York: Schocken, 1964. ISBN 0-8052-0075-4.
  • Zohar 1:134a–46b. Spain, late 13th Century. Reprinted in, e.g., The Zohar. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. 5 vols. London: Soncino Press, 1934.



  • Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan, 3:36. England, 1651. Reprint edited by C. B. Macpherson, 460. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Classics, 1982. ISBN 0140431950.
  • Abraham Isaac Kook. The Moral Principles. Early 20th Century. Reprinted in Abraham Isaac Kook: the Lights of Penitence, the Moral Principles, Lights of Holiness, Essays, Letters, and Poems. Translated by Ben Zion Bokser, 142, 162. Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press 1978. ISBN 0-8091-2159-X.
  • Irving Fineman. Jacob, An Autobiograhical Novel, 11–13, 16–18. New York: Random House, 1941.


  • Thomas Mann. Joseph and His Brothers. Translated by John E. Woods, 37, 91, 97–100, 103–08, 113–14, 116–17, 134, 150, 153–73, 192–94, 242, 257, 298-99, 335, 340–41, 404, 414, 417, 428–30, 449, 524, 538, 669–70, 693, 806, 809. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005. ISBN 1-4000-4001-9. Originally published as Joseph und seine Brüder. Stockholm: Bermann-Fischer Verlag, 1943.
  • Roland de Vaux. “The Separate Traditions of Abraham and Jacob.” Biblical Archaeology Review. 6 (4) (July/Aug. 1980).
  • Katherine Paterson. Jacob Have I Loved. New York: HarperCollins, 1980. ISBN 0-690-04078-4.
  • Carl D. Evans. “The Jacob Cycle in Genesis: The Patriarch Jacob — An ‘Innocent Man’: Moral ambiguity in the biblical portrayal.” Bible Review. 2 (1) (Spring 1986).
  • Marc Gellman. “The Strong Man Who Cried.” In Does God Have a Big Toe? Stories About Stories in the Bible, 57–59. New York: HarperCollins, 1989. ISBN 0-06-022432-0.
  • Susan Ackerman. “Child Sacrifice: Returning God’s Gift: Barren women give birth to exceptional children.” Bible Review. 9 (3) (June 1993).


  • Aaron Wildavsky. Assimilation versus Separation: Joseph the Administrator and the Politics of Religion in Biblical Israel, 5–6, 8, 13, 15, 17–29. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1993. ISBN 1-56000-081-3.
  • Savina J. Teubal. “Naming is Creating: Biblical women hold the power.” Bible Review. 11 (4) (Aug. 1995).
  • Marc Gellman. “Bless Me, Too!” In God’s Mailbox: More Stories About Stories in the Bible, 75–79. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1996. ISBN 0-688-13169-7.
  • Elie Wiesel. “Supporting Roles: Esau.” Bible Review. 14 (2) (Apr. 1998).
  • Jack Miles. “Supporting Roles: Jacob’s Wrestling Match: Was it an angel or Esau?” Bible Review. 14 (5) (Oct. 1998).


  • Jonathan Goldstein. “Jacob and Esau.” In Ladies and Gentlemen, the Bible! 79–114. New York: Riverhead Books, 2009. ISBN 978-1-59448-367-7.
  • Raymond Westbrook. “Good as His Word: Jacob Manipulates Justice.” Biblical Archaeology Review. 35 (3) (May/June 2009): 50–55, 64.

External links



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