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Socinianism is a version of the old Arian anti-trinitarian heresy named after Fausto Sozzini (or Socinus, 1539-1604), a product of the radical skepticism of the Italian Renaissance. Socinianism denies the full deity of Christ, predestination, original sin, total inability (of man to convert himself), the atonement as a penal satisfaction, and justification by faith alone.

The Socinian attacks on the substitutionary and propitiatory nature of the atonement were strongly opposed by 16th century jurist Hugo Grotius, who, in response to the Socinians, developed what has become known as the Governmental theory of atonement.

Forms of Socinianism continue today in the Unitarians and the Jehovah's Witnesses.

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