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Yoga Vasistha

Shiksha (Devanagari: शिक्षा IAST: śikṣā) is one of the six Vedangas, treating the traditional Hindu science of phonetics and phonology of Sanskrit.

Its aim is the teaching of the correct pronunciation of the Vedic hymns and mantras. The oldest phonetic textbooks are the Pratishakyas (prātiśākhya, a vrddhi abstract from Sanskrit prati-śākhā), describing pronunciation, intonation of Sanskrit, as well as the Sanskrit rules of sandhi (word combination), specific to individual schools or Shakhas of the Vedas.


The Patishakhyas, which evolved from the more ancient padapathas (padapāṭha) around c. 500 BCE, deal with the manner in which the Vedas are to be enunciated.

Five Pratishakhyas are preserved:

  • Rigveda-Pratishakya (Shakala shakha), attributed to Shaunaka
  • Shukla-Yajurveda-Pratishakhya
  • Taittiriya (Black Yajurveda) Pratishakhya, ed. Whitney 1871 [1]
  • Atharvaveda-Pratishakhya (Shaunakiya shakha)
  • Shaunakiya Chaturaadhyaayika (Shaunakiya shakha)

The Pratishakhyas led to a great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of pronunciation, they propose breaking up the large Sanskrit compounds into stems, prefixes, and suffixes. Certain styles of recitation (pāṭha) such as the jaṭāpāṭha involved switching syllables, repeating the last word of a line at the beginning of the next, and other permutations. In the process, a considerable amount of morphology is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi. An even more important discovery recorded in the Pratishakhya texts, particularly the Samaveda Pratishakhya, which is claimed to be the earliest[1]), is an organization of the stop consonant sounds into a 5x5 varga or square:

ka kha ga gha ṅa
ca cha ja jha ña
ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma

in which difference between sounds is preserved whether you recite it horizontally or vertically. This was extended and completed with fricatives and sibilants, semi-vowels, and vowels, and was eventually codified into the Brahmi alphabet, which is one of the most systematic sound to writing mapping. A scholar has commented: Mendelejev's Periodic system of elements, the varga system was the result of centuries of analysis. In the course of that development, the basic concepts of phonology were discovered and defined. [2]

Other Shiksha texts

In addition, several Shiksha texts exist, most of them in metrical verse form but a few in sutra form. Some of these surviving texts are: English translation of Paniniya Siksa.pdf

  • Amoghanandini Shiksha
  • Apisali Shiksha (in sutra form)
  • Aranya Shiksha
  • Atreya Shiksha
  • Avasananirnyaya Shiksha
  • Bharadvaja Shiksha
  • Chandra Shiksha of Chandragomin (sutra form)
  • Charayaniya Shiksha
  • Galadrka Shiksha
  • Kalanirnya Shiksha
  • Katyayani Shiksha
  • Kauhaliya Shiksha
  • Kaundinya Shiksha
  • Keshavi Shiksha
  • Kramakarika Shiksha
  • Kramasandhaana Shiksha
  • Laghumoghanandini Shiksha
  • Lakshmikanta Shiksha
  • Lomashi Shiksha
  • Madhyandina Shiksha
  • Mandavya Shiksha
  • Mallasharmakrta Shiksha
  • Manasvaara Shiksha
  • Manduki Shiksha
  • Naradiya Shiksha
  • Paniniya Shiksha (versified)
  • Paniniya Shiksha (in sutra form)
  • Paniniya Shiksha (with accents)
  • Parashari Shiksha
  • Padyaatmika Keshavi Shiksha
  • Pari Shiksha
  • Pratishakhyapradipa Shiksha
  • Sarvasammata Shiksha
  • Shaishiriya Shiksha
  • Shamaana Shiksha
  • Shambhu Shiksha
  • Shodashashloki Shiksha
  • Shikshasamgraha
  • Siddhanta Shiksha
  • Svaraankusha Shiksha
  • Svarashtaka Shiksha
  • Svaravyanjana Shiksha
  • Vasishtha Shiksha
  • Varnaratnapradipa Shiksha
  • Vyaali Shiksha
  • Vyasa Shiksha
  • Yajnavalkya Shiksha

Although many of these Shiksha texts an attached to specific Vedic schools, others are late texts.


Traditionally syllables (not letters) in Sanskrit are called Akshara", meaning "imperishable (entity)", as it were "atoms" of speech. These aksharas are basically classified mainly into two types,[3]

  • Svara (pratyahara aC) : Vowel
  • Vyanjana (pratyahara haL) : Consonant

Svara akṣaras are also known as prāṇa akṣara i.e. they are main sounds in speech, without which speech is not possible. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil vowels calling them as Uyir ezhutthu. Panini referred to svara by ac pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as ac Akṣara.

Vyañjana means embellishment, i.e., consonants are treated as embellishment for the vowels to make a language sonorant. They are also known as Prāni akshara i.e., they are like a body in which life (svara) will be present. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil Consonants calling them as Mey ezhutthu. Panini referred to vyañjana by Hal Pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as Hal akshara.

Again vyañjana akṣaras are divided into three types,

  • Vyañjana
    • Sparśa : Stop
    • Antastha : Approximant
    • Ūṣman: Sibilant

Sparśa akṣaras include syllables from Ka to Ma they are 25 in number. Antastha akṣaras include syllables ya, ra, la and va. Ūshman akṣaras include śa, sha, sa and ha.

It was told that a vowel can be pronounced in 18 ways (3x2x3) in Sanskrit language based on timing, manner, and accent of pronunciation.


Each vowel can be classified into three types based on the time of pronunciation (morae). The unit of time is mātra (approx. 0.4 second). They are,

  • Hrasva : Short vowel, Eka-mātra
  • Dīrgha : Long vowel, Dvi-mātra
  • Pluta : Prolonged vowel, Tri-mātra (pluti)

Each vowel can be pronounced in three ways according to timespan of articulation. ×


Each vowel can be classified into two types based on the manner of pronunciation. They are

Mukha : Oral
Nāsika : Nasal (all vowels are considered phonemically oral)

Pitch accent

Each vowel can be classified into three types based on accent of articulation. This was lost in Classical Sanskrit, but used in reciting Vedic & Upanishadic hymns and mantras.

Udātta : high pitch
Anudātta : low pitch
Svarita : falling pitch

Each vowel can be pronounced in three ways according to the accent of pronunciation.


Traditional articulatory phonetics

According to Indian linguistic tradition, articulation is analysed by different parameters and features.[4]

Places of Articulation

Generally, in articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

According to Indian linguistic tradition, the places of articulation (passive) are classified as five. They are:-

Kaṇṭhya : Velar
Tālavya : Palatal
Mūrdhanya : Retroflex
Dantya : Dental
Ōshtya : Labial

Apart from that, other places are combinations of the above five places. They are:-

Dantōsthya : Labio-dental (Eg: v)
Kantatālavya : Eg: Diphthong e
Kantōsthya : labial-velar (Eg: Diphthong o)

The places of articulation (active) are classified as three, they are

Jihvāmūla : tongue root, for velar
Jihvāmadhya : tongue body, for palatal
Jihvāgra : tip of tongue, for cerebral and dental
Adhōṣṭa : lower lip, for labial

Efforts of Articulation

Effort of articulation (Uccāraṇa Prayatna) is of two types for consonants,

Bāhya Prayatna : External effort
Spṛṣṭa : Plosive
Īshat Spṛṣṭa : Approximant
Īshat Saṃvṛta : Fricative
Abhyantara Prayatna : Internal effort
Alpaprāna : Unaspirated
Mahāprāna : Aspirated
Śvāsa : Unvoiced
Nāda : Voiced

Articulation of Consonants

Articulation of consonants will be a logical combination of components in the two prayatnas. The below table gives a view upon articulation of consonants.

Samskrita Vyanjana Ucchārana Pattika[5]
Prayatna Niyamāvalī Kanthya
Dantōṣṭya Ōshtya
Sparśa, Śvāsa, Alpaprāna ka ca ṭa ta pa
Sparśam, Śvāsa,Mahāprāna kha cha ṭha tha pha
Sparśa, Nāda, Alpaprāna ga ja ḍa da ba
Sparśa, Nāda, Mahāprāna gha jha ḍha dha bha
Sparśa, Nāda, Alpaprāna,
Anunāsika, Drava, Avyāhata
ṅa ña ṇa na ma
Antastha, Nāda, Alpaprāṇa,
Drava, Avyāhata
ya ra
Ūṣman, Śvāsa,Mahāprāṇa, Avyāhata Visarga śa ṣa sa
Ūshman, Nāda,Mahāprāna, Avyāhata ha

See also

  • Shiva Sutra


  1. Staal, J. F., The Fidelity of Oral Tradition and the Origins of Science. North-Holland Publishing Company, 1986.
  2. Frits Staal, The science of language, Chapter 16 in Gavin Flood, The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 599 pages ISBN 0631215352, p. 352.
  3. "Siddhanta Kaumudi" by Bhattoji Diksita and "Laghu Siddhanta Kaumudi", by Varadaraja.
  4. "Siddhanta Kaumudi" by Bhattoji Diksita and "Laghu Siddhanta Kaumudi", by Varadaraja.
  5. "Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu", Page 127 (In Telugu).