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Religious naturalism is an approach to spirituality that is devoid of supernaturalism.

Religious naturalism, like most religions, is concerned about the meaning of life, but it is equally interested in living daily life in a rational, happy way. An alternative, more human-centric approach, is to look at it as answering the question: "What is the meaning of one's life and does it have a purpose?". Religious naturalism attempts to amalgamate the scientific examination of reality with the subjective sensory experiences of spirituality and aesthetics. As such, it is an objectivity with religious emotional feelings and the aesthetic insights supplied by art, music and literature.,[1][2]


All forms of religious naturalism, being naturalistic in their basic beliefs, assert that the natural world is the center of our most significant experiences and understandings. Consequently, nature is considered as the ultimate value in assessing one's being. Religious naturalists, despite having followed differing cultural and individual paths, affirm the human need for meaning and value in their lives. They draw on two fundamental convictions in those quests: the sense of Nature's richness, spectacular complexity, and fertility, and the recognition that Nature is the only realm in which people live out their lives. Humans are considered interconnected parts of Nature.[3]

Science is a fundamental, indispensable component of the paradigm of religious naturalism. It relies on mainstream science to reinforce religious and spiritual perspectives. Science is the primary interpretive tool for religious naturalism, because, scientific methods are thought to provide the most reliable understanding of Nature and the world, including human nature.[4]

"Truth is sought for its own sake. And those who are engaged upon the quest for anything for its own sake are not interested in other things. Finding the truth is difficult, and the road to it is rough."[5]
Therefore, the seeker after the truth is not one who studies the writings of the ancients and, following his natural disposition, puts his trust in them, but rather the one who suspects his faith in them and questions what he gathers from them, the one who submits to argument and demonstration, and not to the sayings of a human being whose nature is fraught with all kinds of imperfection and deficiency. Thus the duty of the man who investigates the writings of scientists, if learning the truth is his goal, is to make himself an enemy of all that he reads, and, applying his mind to the core and margins of its content, attack it from every side. He should also suspect himself as he performs his critical examination of it, so that he may avoid falling into either prejudice or leniency.[6]


A religious attitude towards nature

Religious naturalism is religious in its approach to morality which is seen as coming from humans' biological and social evolution rather than divine revelations. Human evolution has produced a brain complex enough both for symbolic contemplation and for participating in unique human forms of social life. Since humans are hardwired for flexibility, morality varies from culture to culture. However, most world cultures adhere to the same basic 24 virtues.[7]

P. Roger Gillette of Meadville Lombard Theology School says that religious naturalism is a religion "in that it is a system of belief and practice that demands and facilitates one's intellectual and emotional reconnection with one's self, one's family, one's local and global community and ecosystem, the universe of which the global ecosystem is a part, and (perhaps) the creative source of this universe". It is also a theology, an ethics, and a “full service’ belief that requires a ‘radical spiritual transformation’.[8]


Baruch Spinoza

Religious naturalism is a relatively new religious movement. Early uses of the term include the American Whig Review in 1946 describing "a seeming 'religious naturalism'",[9] In 1869 "Religious naturalism differs from this mainly in the fact that it extends the domain of nature farther outward into space and time. ...It never transcends nature". was expressed in American Unitarian Association literature.[10][broken citation] Ludwig Feuerbach wrote that religious naturalism was "the acknowledgment of the Divine in Nature" and also "an element of the Christian religion", but by no means that religion's definitive "characteristic" or "tendency".[11]

Lao Tzu, traditionally the author of the Tao Te Ching

In 1864, Pope Pius IX condemned religious naturalism in the first seven articles of the Syllabus of Errors.[non-primary source needed]

In the 1870s J.K. Huysmans was among a rising group of writers "the so-called Naturalist school, of whom Émile Zola was the acknowledged head…With Là-bas (1891), a novel which reflected the aesthetics of the spiritualist revival and the contemporary interest in the occult, Huysmans formulated for the first time an aesthetic theory which sought to synthesize the mundane and the transcendent: 'spiritual Naturalism'."[12][broken citation][unreliable source?]

Many modern religious naturalists[who?] find philosophical similarity with ancient philosophers in the stoic or skeptical traditions, for example Zeno (founder of Stoicism) who said:

All things are parts of one single system, which is called Nature […] Virtue consists in a will which is in agreement with Nature.[13]

Similarity is also found[by whom?] with certain rationalist philosophers beginning with Benedictus de Spinoza. Spinoza proposed that God was the totality of existence rather than external to it ("God, or substance…. is the indwelling, and not the transient cause of all things" [14]). Others[who?] find both philosophical and religious resonance in certain Eastern traditions, particularly modern schools of Buddhism and Taoism (being one with the'Tao' is not a union with an eternal spirit but rather living in accordance with nature). However, the roots of religious naturalists today are found in thinkers who used the term in the 1940s and 1950s and writers since then.

Mordecai Kaplan (1881-1983) has been considered[by whom?] one of the great rabbis of the 20th century and the founder of the Jewish reconstructionism movement.[15] He was an early advocate for religious naturalism. He believed that a naturalistic approach to religion and ethics was possible in a desacralizing world. He saw God as the sum of all natural processes.[16][non-primary source needed]

Another of the currently verified usages was in 1940 by George Perrigo Conger[17] and Edgar S. Brightman.[18] Shortly thereafter, H.H. Dubs wrote an article entitled Religious Naturalism – an Evaluation (The Journal of Religion, XXIII: 4, October, 1943), which begins "Religious naturalism is today one of the outstanding American philosophies of religion…" and discusses ideas developed by Henry Nelson Wieman in books that predate Dubs's article by 20 years. These articles and books draw not only on Wieman, but also on ideas developed by the Chicago School of theology and by at least the 1950s Wieman and Bernard Meland in Chicago were frequently using the term to designate their own views.[improper synthesis?]

In 1991 Jerome A. Stone wrote The Minimalist Vision of Transcendence explicitly "to sketch a philosophy of religious naturalism".[19] Use of the term was expanded in the 1990s by Loyal Rue, who was familiar with the term from Brightman's book. Rue used the term in conversations with several people before 1994, and subsequent conversations between Rue and Ursula Goodenough [both of whom were active in IRAS (The Institute on Religion in an Age of Science)] led to Goodenough's use in her book "The Sacred Depths of Nature" and by Rue in "Religion is not about god" and other writings. Since 1994 numerous authors have used the phrase or expressed similar thinking. Examples are: Chet Raymo, Stuart Kauffman and Karl Peters.[improper synthesis?]

Goodenough, PhD

Mike Ignatowski states that "there were many religious naturalists in the first half of the 20th century and some even before that" but that "religious naturalism as a movement didn’t really come into its own until about 1990 [and] took a major leap forward in 2000 when Ursula Goodenough published The Sacred Depths of Nature, which is considered one of the founding texts of this movement."[20]

Biologist Ursula Goodenough states:

I profess my Faith. For me, the existence of all this complexity and awareness and intent and beauty, and my ability to apprehend it, serves as the ultimate meaning and the ultimate value. The continuation of life reaches around, grabs its own tail, and forms a sacred circle that requires no further justification, no Creator, no super-ordinate meaning of meaning, no purpose other than that the continuation continue until the sun collapses or the final meteor collides. I confess a credo of continuation. And in so doing, I confess as well a credo of human continuation[21][22]

Donald Crosby's Living with Ambiguity published in 2008, has, as its first chapter, Religion of Nature as a Form of Religious Naturalism.[23] Also in December 2008, an in depth look at the history of this worldview was published. In addition a few modern theologians with liberal orientations have rejected some of the historical claims of some biblical doctrines and moved to progressive forms of Christianity and Judaism akin to neo-theistic religious naturalism. Examples are: Mordecai Kaplan, John Shelby Spong, Paul Tillich, John A. T. Robinson, William Murry and Gordon D. Kaufman. Some of those into process theology[24] may also be included in this movement.


Stone, PhD

Religious Naturalism Today: The Rebirth of a Forgotten Alternative is a history by Dr. Jerome A. Stone (Dec. 2008 release) that presents this paradigm as a once-forgotten option in religious thinking that is making a rapid revival. It seeks to explore and encourage religious ways of responding to the world on a completely naturalistic basis without a supreme being or ground of being. This book traces this history and analyzes some of the issues dividing religious naturalists. It covers the birth of religious naturalism, from George Santayana to Henry Nelson Wieman and briefly explores religious naturalism in literature and art. Contested issues are discussed including whether nature's power or goodness is the focus of attention and also on the appropriateness of using the term "God". The contributions of more than twenty living Religious Naturalists are presented. The last chapter ends the study by exploring what it is like on the inside to live as a religious naturalist.[25][non-primary source needed]

Chet Raymowrites that he had come to the same conclusion as Teilhard de Chardin had: "Grace is everywhere",[26] and further states that naturalistic emergence is in everything and far more magical than religion-based miracles. A future humankind religion should be ecumenical, ecological, and embrace the story provided by science as the "most reliable cosmology".[27]

As P. Roger Gillette summarizes:

Thus was religious naturalism born. It takes the findings of modern science seriously, and thus is inherently naturalistic. But it also takes the human needs that led to the emergence of religious systems seriously, and thus is also religious. It is religious, or reconnective, in that it seeks and facilitates human reconnection with one's self, family, larger human community, local and global ecosystem, and unitary universe (…) Religious reconnection implies love. And love implies concern, concern for the well-being of the beloved. Religious naturalism thus is marked by concern for the well-being of the whole of nature. This concern provides a basis and drive for ethical behavior toward the whole holy unitary universe.[28]


Due to the rationality and feelings provided by science and a naturalistic spirituality, some religious naturalists have a strong sense of stewardship for the Earth. Luther College professor Loyal Rue has written:

Religious naturalists will be known for their reverence and awe before Nature, their love for Nature and natural forms, their sympathy for all living things, their guilt for enlarging the ecological footprints, their pride in reducing them, their sense of gratitude directed towards the matrix of life, their contempt for those who abstract themselves from natural values, and their solidarity with those who link their self-esteem to sustainable living.[29]

Tenets and rules are not an inherent part of the religious naturalist worldview. However, some organizations have suggested different tenets and sets of rules. The principle tenets and ethics of are:[30]

  • To rely on mainstream science to answers questions of being
  • To adopt a spiritual attitude towards living and the natural world
  • To be benevolent stewards of the earth
  • Adherence to devout environmental ethics and personal morality
  • A consilience of religious thinking acceptable to most peoples
  • Live by the Golden Rule common to most societies
  • Respect for the opinion of others

This is not a complete listing of the key goals of religious naturalism but the main consensus ones. Some religious naturalists may disagree with these tenets and different sectors within this worldview also have their own tenets.


The literature related to religious naturalism includes many variations in conceptual framing. This reflects individual takes on various issues, to some extent various schools of thought, such as basic naturalism, religious humanism, pantheism, and spiritual naturalism that have had time on the conceptual stage, and to some extent differing ways of characterizing Nature.

Current discussion often relates to the issue of whether belief in a God or God-language and associated concepts have any place in a framework that treats the physical universe as its essential frame of reference and the methods of science as providing the preeminent means for determining what Nature is. There are at least three varieties of religious naturalism, and three similar but some what different ways to categorize them. They are:

Michael Cavanaugh – God-language[31]

  • A kind of naturalism that does use God-language but fundamentally treats God metaphorically.
  • A commitment to naturalism using God-language, but as either (1) a faith statement or supported by philosophical arguments, or (2) both, usually leaving open the question of whether that usage as metaphor or refers to the ultimate answer that Nature can be.

Jerald Robertson – Theistic spectrum[32]

  • non-theistic (agnostic, naturalistic concepts of god) - Robertson himself, Stanley Klein, Stuart Kauffman
  • not-theistic (no God concept, some modern naturalisms, non-militant atheism) – Jerome A. Stone, Michael Cavanaugh,[31] Donald A. Crosby,[33] Ursula Goodenough
  • a hodgepodge of individual perspectives.- Philip Hefner

The first category has as many sub-groups as there are distinct definitions for god. Believers in a supernatural entity (transcendent) are by definition not religious naturalists however the matter of a naturalistic concept of God (Immanence) is currently debated. Strong atheists are not considered Religious Naturalists in this differentiation. Some individuals call themselves religious naturalisms but refuse to be categorized.

Jerome A. StoneGod concepts[34]

  • Those who conceive of God as the creative process within the universe – example, Henry Nelson Wieman
  • Those who think of God as the totality of the universe considered religiously - Bernard Loomer.
  • A third type of religious naturalism sees no need to use the concept or terminology of God, Stone himself and Ursula Goodenough

Stone emphasizes that some Religious Naturalists do not reject the concept of God, but if they use the concept, it involves a radical alteration of the idea such as Gordon Kaufman who defines God as creativity.

Ignatowski divides RN in to only two types – theistic and non-theistic.[20]

Shared principles

Emergence of Life

There are several principles shared by all the aforementioned varieties of religious naturalism:[35]

  • All varieties of religious naturalism see humans as an interconnected, emergent part of nature.
  • Accept the primacy of science with regard to what is measurable via the scientific method.
  • Recognize science's limitations in accounting for judgments of value and in providing a full account of human experience. Thus religious naturalism embraces nature's creativity, beauty and mystery and honors many aspects of the artistic, cultural and religious traditions that respond to and attempt to interpret Nature in subjective ways.
  • Approach matters of morality, ethics and value with a focus on how the world works, with a deep concern for fairness and the welfare of all humans regardless of their station in life.
  • Seek to integrate these interpretative, spiritual and ethical responses in a manner that respects diverse religious and philosophical perspectives, while still subjecting them and itself to rigorous scrutiny.
  • The focus on scientific standards of evidence imbues RN with the humility inherent in scientific inquiry and its limited, albeit ever deepening, ability to describe reality (see Epistemology).
  • A strong environmental ethic for the welfare of the planet Earth and humanity.
  • Belief in the sacredness of life and the evolutionary process

The concept of emergence has grown in popularity with many Religious Naturalists. It helps explain how a complex Universe and life by self-organization have risen out of a multiplicity of relatively simple elements and their interactions. The entire story of emergence is related in the Epic of Evolution - the mythic scientific narrative used to tell the verifiable chronicle of the evolutionary process that is the Universe. Most religious naturalist consider the Epic of Evolution a true story about the historic achievement of Nature.[36][37][38] “The Epic of Evolution is the 14 billion year narrative of cosmic, planetary, life, and cultural evolution—told in sacred ways. Not only does it bridge mainstream science and a diversity of religious traditions; if skillfully told, it makes the science story memorable and deeply meaningful, while enriching one's religious faith or secular outlook.”[39]

Michael Dowd

A number of naturalistic writers have used this theme as a topic for their books using such synonyms as: Cosmic Evolution, Everybody's Story, Evolutionary Epic, Evolutionary Universe, Great Story, New Story, Universal Story. ‘Epic of evolution’ is a term that, within the past three years(1998), has become the theme and title of a number of gatherings. It seems to have been first used by Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson in 1978. ‘The evolutionary epic,’ Wilson wrote in his book On Human Nature, ‘is probably the best myth we will ever have.’ Myth as falsehood was not the usage intended by Wilson in this statement. Rather, myth as a grand narrative that provides a people with a placement in time—a meaningful placement that celebrates extraordinary moments of a shared heritage. The epic of evolution is science translated into meaningful story.”[40]

Evolutionary evangelist and Pentecostal Evangelical minister Michael Dowd uses the term to help present his position that science and religious faith are not mutually exclusive (a premise of religious naturalism). He preaches that the epic of cosmic, biological, and human evolution, revealed by science, is a basis for an inspiring and meaningful view of our place in the universe. Evolution is viewed as a spiritual process that it is not meaningless blind chance.[41] He is joined by a number of other theologians in this position.[42][43][44]

Notable people



  • Ursula Goodenough
  • Loyal Rue
  • Henry Nelson Wieman
  • Mordecai Kaplan
  • Jerome A. Stone
  • Donald A. Crosby
  • Chet Raymo
  • Philip Hefner
  • Paul Tillich
  • Stuart Kauffman
  • Ralph Wendell Burhoe
  • Karl E. Peters
  • Michael Dowd
  • Alan Watts
  • Brian Swimme
  • Varadaraja V. Raman



  • Daniel Dennett
  • John Haught

Prominent communities

Jewish religious naturalism

Religious naturalists sometimes use the social practices of traditional religions, including communal gatherings and rituals, to foster a sense of community, and to serve as reinforcement of its participants' efforts to expand the scope of their understandings. Some known examples of religious naturalists groupings are:

  • Religious Naturalism Interest Group of the Institute on Religion in an Age of Science, which usually meets annually on Star Island off the coast of New Hampshire.[45][46]
  • Congregation Beth Or, a Jewish congregation near Chicago led by Rabbi David Oler [47]
  • Congregation Beth Adam in Loveland, Ohio led by Rabbi Robert Barr, which practices humanistic Judaism [48]
  • Unitarian Universalist Religious Naturalists (UURN) organized by John Hooper [49]
  • Local Progressive Christian groups[50]
  • Nontheistic Friends (Quakers) [51]
  • Organizations with a naturalistic orientation [52]

See also


  1. Viewpoints most Religious Naturalists have in common [1] retrieved 4-2-09
  2. aesthetic insights [2] retrieved 4-2-09
  3. Interconnectivity - Ecology retrieved 4-2-09
  4. Goals of Religious Naturalism [3] retrieved 4-2-09
  5. Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) Critique of Ptolemy, translated by S. Pines, Actes X Congrès internationale d'histoire des sciences, Vol I Ithaca 1962, as referenced in Sambursky 1974, p. 139
  6. (Sabra 2003)
  7. *Peterson, Christopher, & Seligman, Martin E. P. - Character Strengths and Virtues, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2004
  8. P. Roger Gillette I Theology Of, By, & For Religious Naturalism [4] retrieved 3-07-09
  9. George Hooker Colton, James Davenport Whelpley - The American Review: A Whig Journal, Devoted to Politics and Literature, 1846‎, page 282 [5]
  10. Athanasia - Published by American Unitarian Association, 1870, page 6
  11. Ludwig Feuerbach, George Eliot - The Essence of Christianity‎, Religion, 1881, page103 [6]
  13. Sharon M. Kaye, Paul Thomson - Philosophy for Teens: Questioning Life's Big Ideas, Prufrock Press Inc., 2006, page 72, ISBN 1593632029, 9781593632021
  14. Benedict de Spinoza, The Ethics of Spinoza, Citadel, 1976, ISBN 0806505362
  15. Alex J. Goldman - The greatest rabbis hall of fame, SP Books, 1987, page 342, ISBN 0933503148
  16. Rabbi Emanuel S. Goldsmith - Reconstructionism Today Spring 2001, Volume 8, Number 3, Jewish Reconstructionist Federation retrieved 4-1-09
  17. George Perrigo Conger - The Ideologies of Religion, Religion, 1940, page 212 [7]
  18. Edgar S. Brightman – God as the Tendency of Nature to Support or Produce Values (Religious Naturalism) , A Philosophy of Religion, 1940, page 148 [8]
  19. Jerome A. Stone - The Minimalist Vision of Transcendence, 1991, page 9 [9]
  20. 20.0 20.1 Religious Naturalism - Mike Ignatowski, Kingston, June 25, 2006 [10] retrieved 3-07-09
  21. Ursula Goodenough - The Sacred Depths of Nature, Oxford University Press, 2000, page 171, ISBN 0195136292
  22. Video Interview - Speaking of Faith - KRISTA'S JOURNAL, April 7, 2005
  23. Donald A. Crosby - Living with Ambiguity, SUNY Press, 2008, ISBN 0791475190, page 1
  24. C. Robert Mesle - Process Theology, Chalice Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-827229-45-7
  25. Religious Naturalism Today: The Rebirth of a Forgotten Alternative
  26. When God is Gone Everything is Holy – The Making of a Religious Naturalist, Chet Raymo, 2008, p 136
  27. Chet Raymo - When God is Gone Everything is Holy, Soren Books, 2008, page 114, ISBN 1-933495-13-8
  28. P. Roger Gillette - Theology Of, By, & For Religious Naturalism [11] retrieved 3-09-09
  29. Loyal D. Rue - RELIGION is not about god, Rutgers University Press, 2005, page 367, ISBN 0813535115
  30. Religious Naturalism Tenets
  31. 31.0 31.1
  35. Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature , Introduction, page xviii [12]
  36. How Grand a Narrative– Ursula Goodenough
  37. Epic, Story, Narrative – Bill Bruehl
  38. How Grand a Narrative – Philip Hefner
  39. “The Epic of Evolution” in the 2004 Taylor’s Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature:[13]
  40. Connie Barlow - The Epic of Evolution: Religious and cultural interpretations of modern scientific cosmology. Science & Spirit
  41. Thank God for Evolution
  42. Eugenie Carol Scott, Niles Eldredge, Contributor Niles Eldredge, - Evolution Vs. Creationism: An Introduction, University of California Press, 2005, page 235, ISBN 0520246500 - [14]
  43. John Haught - God After Darwin: A Theology of Evolution, Westview Press, 2008, ISBN 0813343704
  44. Quotes of Berry and Hefner
  46. The Institute on Religion in an Age of Science retrieved 4/15/09
  47. Beth Or Congregation Beth Or retrieved 4/15/09
  48. Beth Adam Congregation Beth Adam retrieved 4/15/09
  49. Unitarian Universalist Religious Naturalists Unitarian Universalist Religious Naturalists retrieved 4/15/09
  50. Progressive Christians
  51. Nontheistic Friends (Quakers) retrieved 4/15/09
  52. Organizations with a naturalistic orientation retrieved 4/15/09

Further reading

  • 2008 Jerome A. Stone - Religious Naturalism Today: The Rebirth of a Forgotten Alternative, State U. of New York Press (Dec 2008), ISBN 0791475379
  • 2008 Chet Raymo - When God Is Gone, Everything Is Holy: Making of a Religious Naturalist, Sorin Books (September 2008), ISBN 1933495138
  • 2008 Donald A. Crosby - Living with Ambiguity: Religious Naturalism and the Menace of Evil, State University of New York Press (August 7, 2008), ISBN 0791475190
  • 2008 Michael Dowd - Thank God for Evolution: How the Marriage of Science and Religion Will Transform Your Life and Our World, Viking (June 2008), ISBN 0670020451
  • 2006 Loyal Rue - Religion is not About God, Rutgers University Press (September 25, 2006), ISBN 0813539552
  • 2006 William R. Murry - Reason and Reverence, Skinner House Books (November 6, 2006), ISBN 1558965181
  • 2004 Gordon D. Kaufman - In the Beginning….Creativity, Augsburg Fortress Publishers (July 2004), ISBN 0800660935
  • 2002 Karl Peters - Dancing with the Sacred, Trinity Press International (August 2002), ISBN 1563383934
  • 2000 Ursula Goodenough - The Sacred Depths of Nature, Oxford University Press, USA; 1 edition (June 15, 2000), ISBN 0195136292
  • 2000 Paul Tillich - The Courage to Be, Yale University Press; 2 Sub edition (July 11, 2000), ISBN 0300084714
  • 1997 Connie Barlow - Green Space Green Time: The Way of Science, Springer (September 1997), ISBN 0387947949
  • LibraryThing - Religious Naturalism

External links

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Religious naturalism. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.