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Pythagoras lived approximately from 582 to 507 BC. He was a Greek mathematician and philosopher, for whom the Pythagorean Theorem is named. Pythagoras was one of the Presocratic Philosophers. He was also an astronomer and a musician. Pythagoras believed in the reincarnation of human souls as animals, and consequently kept a strictly vegetarian diet.

Pythagoras sought to reduce music and astronomy to numerical patterns. He believed in a concept of translating musical notes into mathematical equations and vice versa called Pythagorean tuning by use of the ratio 3:2. He also believed that the mathematical motions of the planets in outer space produced a cosmic musical symphony that he called the harmony of the spheres. He was one of the first people to realize that Venus seen as the morning star and Venus seen as the evening star were actually the same planet.

The Pythagorean School was founded by Pythagoras in about 585 B.C. A brief list of Pythagorean contributions includes[1]:

  1. Philosophy.
  2. The study of proportion.
  3. The study of plane and solid geometry.
  4. Number theory.
  5. The theory of proof.
  6. The discovery of incommensurables.

See also