The 99 Names of Allah, also known as The 99 Most Beautiful Names of God (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى ʾasmāʾ allāh al-Ḥusnā), are the names of God (specifically, attributes) by which Muslims regard God and which are traditionally maintained as described in the Qur'ān, and Sunnah, amongst other places. There is, according to hadith, a special group of 99 names but no enumeration of them. Thus the exact list is not agreed upon, and the names of God (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed 99 in the Qur'ān and Sunnah. Some of the names of God have been hidden from mankind, therefore there are not only 99 names of God but there are more.
اللهم إني ادعوك بأسمائك الحسنى كلها "O Allah, I invoke You with all of Your Beautiful Names."
Muhammad is also reported to have said in a famous hadith:
Verily, there are ninety-nine names of God, one hundred minus one. He who enumerates [and believes in them and the one God behind] them would get into Paradise.
Of note is that this hadith does not say that there are only 99 names, but 99 names that are better than the others. This caused people to search them out in the Qur'an and Sunnah, and a list was compiled. Over time it became custom to recite the list in its entirety. While some Muslims believe that this list is mentioned by Muhammad himself, the specialist Muslim scholars argue strongly that the list was just compiled by a Muslim scholar as an addendum to the actual hadith (al-Waleed ibn Muslim). If it was only an attempt of a scholar, they are not necessarily the names proper, and other attempts may still be made. A recent scholar, Dr. Mahmoud Abdel-Razek, made an attempt of this kind and explained in detail why he differs in opinion with al-Waleed about enlisting some of the names.
However, reciting the traditional names has developed into a ritual by some Muslims as an attempt to enumerate them, while most other Muslims believe that the "enumeration" is not just the act of recitation, but applying the attributes that the names suggest.
List of names
The Qur'an refers to the attributes of God as God's “most beautiful names” (Arabic: al-ʾasmāʾ al-ḥusnā) (see [Qur'an 7:180], [Qur'an 17:110], [Qur'an 20:8], [Qur'an 59:24]). According to Gerhard Böwering,
They are traditionally enumerated as 99 in number to which is added as the highest name (al-ism al-ʾaʿẓam), the supreme name of God, Allāh. The locus classicus for listing the divine names in the literature of qurʾānic commentary is [Qur'an 17:110], “Call upon God, or call upon The Merciful; whichsoever you call upon, to Him belong the most beautiful names,” and also [Qur'an 59:22] q 59:22-4, which includes a cluster of more than a dozen divine epithets.
Islamic theology makes a distinction between the attributes of God and the divine essence.
Below is a list of the 99 Names of God according to the tradition of Islam.
|#||Arabic||Transliteration||Translation (can vary based on context)||Qur'anic usage|
|1||الرحمن||Ar-Rahmān||The All Beneficent, The Most Merciful in Essence, The Compassionate, The Most Gracious||Beginning of every chapter except one, and in numerous other places. Name frequently used in Surah 55, Ar-Rahman.|
|2||الرحيم||Ar-Rahīm||The Most Merciful, The Most Merciful in Actions||Beginning of every chapter except one, and in numerous other places|
|3||الملك||Al-Malik||The Owner, The Sovereign, The True and Ultimate King||59:23, 20:114|
|4||القدوس||Al-Quddūs||The Most Holy, The Most Pure, The Most Perfect||59:23, 62:1|
|5||السلام||As-Salām||The Peace and Blessing, The Source of Peace and Safety, The Most Perfect||59:23|
|6||المؤمن||Al-Mu'min||The Guarantor, The Self Affirming, The Granter of Security, The Affirmer of Truth||59:23|
|7||المهيمن||Al-Muhaymin||The Guardian, The Preserver, The Overseeing Protector||59:23|
|8||العزيز||Al-Azīz||The Almighty, The Self Sufficient, The Most Honorable||3:6, 4:158, 9:40, 48:7, 59:23|
|9||الجبار||Al-Jabbār||The Despot, The Irresistible, The Compeller, The Most Lofty, The Restorer/Improver of Affairs||59:23|
|10||المتكبر||Al-Mutakabbir||He Who Reveals His Greatness in All||59:23|
|11||الخالق||Al-Khāliq||The Creator||6:102, 13:16, 39:62, 40:62, 59:24|
|13||المصور||Al-Musawwir||The Fashioner of Forms||59:24|
|14||الغفار||Al-Ghaffār||The Ever Forgiving||20:82, 38:66, 39:5, 40:42, 71:10|
|15||القهار||Al-Qahhār||The All Compelling Subduer||13:16, 14:48, 38:65, 39:4, 40:16|
|16||الوهاب||Al-Wahhāb||The Bestower||3:8, 38:9, 38:35|
|17||الرزاق||Ar-Razzāq||The Ever Providing||51:58|
|18||الفتاح||Al-Fattāh||The Opener, The Victory Giver||34:26|
|19||العليم||Al-'Alīm||The All Knowing, The Omniscient||2:158, 3:92, 4:35, 24:41, 33:40|
|20||القابض||Al-Qābid||The Restrainer, The Straightener||2:245|
|21||الباسط||Al-Bāsit||The Extender / Expander||2:245|
|23||الرافع||Ar-Rāfi'||The Exalter||58:11, 6:83|
|24||المعز||Al-Mu'izz||The Giver of Honour||3:26|
|25||المذل||Al-Mu'dhell||The Giver of Dishonour||3:26|
|26||السميع||As-Samī||The All Hearing||2:127, 2:256, 8:17, 49:1|
|27||البصير||Al-Basīr||The All Seeing||4:58, 17:1, 42:11, 42:27|
|28||الحكم||Al-Hakam||The Judge, The Arbitrator||22:69|
|29||العدل||Al-`Adl||The Utterly Just||6:115|
|30||اللطيف||Al-Latīf||The Gentle, The Subtly Kind||6:103, 22:63, 31:16, 33:34|
|31||الخبير||Al-Khabīr||The All Aware||6:18, 17:30, 49:13, 59:18|
|32||الحليم||Al-Halīm||The Forbearing, The Indulgent||2:235, 17:44, 22:59, 35:41|
|33||العظيم||Al-'Azīm||The Magnificent, The Infinite||2:255, 42:4, 56:96|
|34||الغفور||Al-Ghafūr||The All Forgiving||2:173, 8:69, 16:110, 41:32|
|35||الشكور||Ash-Shakūr||The Grateful||35:30, 35:34, 42:23, 64:17|
|36||العلي||Al-'Aliyy||The Sublimely Exalted||4:34, 31:30, 42:4, 42:51|
|37||الكبير||Al-Kabīr||The Great||13:9, 22:62, 31:30|
|38||الحفيظ||Al-Hafīz||The Preserver||11:57, 34:21, 42:6|
|40||الحسيب||Al-Hasīb||The Bringer of Judgment||4:6, 4:86, 33:39|
|41||الجليل||Al-Jalīl||The Majestic||55:27, 39:14, 7:143|
|42||الكريم||Al-Karīm||The Bountiful, The Generous||27:40, 82:6|
|43||الرقيب||Ar-Raqīb||The Watchful||4:1, 5:117|
|44||المجيب||Al-Mujīb||The Responsive, The Answerer||11:61|
|45||الواسع||Al-Wāsi'||The Vast, The All Encompassing||2:268, 3:73, 5:54|
|46||الحكيم||Al-Hakīm||The Wise||31:27, 46:2, 57:1, 66:2|
|47||الودود||Al-Wadūd||The Loving||11:90, 85:14|
|48||المجيد||Al-Majīd||The All Glorious||11:73|
|49||الباعث||Al-Bā'ith||The Raiser of The Dead||22:7|
|50||الشهيد||Ash-Shahīd||The Witness||4:166, 22:17, 41:53, 48:28|
|51||الحق||Al-Haqq||The Truth, The Real||6:62, 22:6, 23:116, 24:25|
|52||الوكيل||Al-Wakīl||The Trustee, The Dependable||3:173, 4:171, 28:28, 73:9|
|53||القوى||Al-Qawwiyy||The Strong||22:40, 22:74, 42:19, 57:25|
|54||المتين||Al-Matīn||The Firm, The Steadfast||51:58|
|55||الولى||Al-Waliyy||The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper||4:45, 7:196, 42:28, 45:19|
|56||الحميد||Al-Hamīd||The All Praiseworthy||14:8, 31:12, 31:26, 41:42|
|57||المحصى||Al-Muhsi||The Accounter, The Numberer of All||72:28, 78:29, 82:10-12|
|58||المبدئ||Al-Mubdi'||The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All||10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13|
|59||المعيد||Al-Mu'īd||The Restorer, The Reinstater Who Brings Back All||10:34, 27:64, 29:19, 85:13|
|60||المحيى||Al-Muhyi||The Giver of Life||7:158, 15:23, 30:50, 57:2|
|61||المميت||Al-Mumīt||The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer||3:156, 7:158, 15:23, 57:2|
|62||الحي||Al-Hayy||The Ever Living||2:255, 3:2, 25:58, 40:65|
|63||القيوم||Al-Qayyūm||The Self Subsisting Provider of All||2:255, 3:2, 20:111|
|64||الواجد||Al-Wājid||The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing||38:44|
|65||الماجد||Al-Mājid||The Illustrious, The Magnificent||85:15, 11:73,|
|66||الواحد||Al-Wāhid||The One, The Indivisible||2:163, 5:73, 9:31, 18:110|
|67||الاحد||Al-'Ahad||The One, The Unique||112:1|
|68||الصمد||As-Samad||The Eternal, The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting, The Uncaused Cause of All Being||112:2|
|69||القادر||Al-Qādir||The All Able||6:65, 36:81, 46:33, 75:40|
|70||المقتدر||Al-Muqtadir||The All Determiner, The Dominant||18:45, 54:42, 54:55|
|71||المقدم||Al-Muqaddim||The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward||16:61, 17:34,|
|72||المؤخر||Al-Mu'akhkhir||The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away||71:4|
|73||الأول||Al-'Awwal||The First (Alpha)||57:3|
|74||الأخر||Al-'Akhir||The Last (Omega)||57:3|
|75||الظاهر||Az-Zāhir||The Manifest, The All Victorious||57:3|
|76||الباطن||Al-Bātin||The Hidden, The All Encompassing||57:3|
|77||الوالي||Al-Wāli||The Patron||13:11, 22:7|
|78||المتعالي||Al-Mutā'ali||The Self Exalted||13:9|
|79||البر||Al-Barr||The Most Kind and Righteous||52:28|
|80||التواب||At-Tawwāb||The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting||2:128, 4:64, 49:12, 110:3|
|81||المنتقم||Al-Muntaqim||The Avenger||32:22, 43:41, 44:16|
|82||العفو||Al-Afuww||The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins||4:99, 4:149, 22:60|
|83||الرؤوف||Ar-Ra'ūf||The Compassionate, The All Pitying||3:30, 9:117, 57:9, 59:10|
|84||مالك الملك||Mālik-ul-Mulk||The Owner of All Sovereignty||3:26|
|85||ذو الجلال والإكرام||Dhū-l-Jalāli
|The Lord of Majesty and Generosity||55:27, 55:78|
|86||المقسط||Al-Muqsiţ||The Equitable, The Requiter||7:29, 3:18|
|87||الجامع||Al-Jāmi||The Gatherer, The Unifier||3:9|
|88||الغني||Al-Ghaniyy||The All Rich, The Independent||3:97, 39:7, 47:38, 57:24|
|89||المغني||Al-Mughni||The Enricher, The Emancipator||9:28|
|90||المانع||Al-Māni'||The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender||67:21|
|91||الضار||Ad-Dārr||The Distressor, The Harmer, The Afflictor||6:17|
|92||النافع||An-Nāfi||The Propitious, The Benefactor, The Useful||30:37|
|93||النور||An-Nūr||The One Who Creates the Light of Belief in the Hearts of All the Believers||24:35|
|95||البديع||Al-Badī||The Incomparable, The Originator||2:117, 6:101|
|96||الباقي||Al-Bāqi||The Ever Enduring and Immutable||55:27|
|97||الوارث||Al-Wārith||The Heir, The Inheritor of All||15:23|
|98||الرشيد||Ar-Rashīd||The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower||2:256|
|99||الصبور||As-Sabur||The Patient, The Timeless.||2:153, 3:200, 103:3|
Several hadiths, which vary according to different Shi'a sects of Islam, suggest that the 100th Name will be revealed by the Mahdi. (النصير, An-Naseer, The Helper) Some Ulamaa said that the 100th or must be numbered as 1st is the name "Allah"
Baha' ad-Din al-`Amili
According to Bahá'í scholar ‘Abdu’l-Hamíd Ishráq-Khávari, Shaykh Baha' al-Din adopted the pen name (takhallus) 'Baha' after being inspired by words of Shi'a Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (the fifth Imam) and Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (the sixth Imam), who had stated that the Greatest Name of God was included in either Du'ay-i-Sahar or Du'ay-i-Umm-i-Davud. In the first verse of the Du'ay-i-Sahar, a dawn prayer for the Ramadan, the name "Bahá" appears four times: "Allahumma inni as 'aluka min Bahá' ika bi Abháh va kulla Bahá' ika Bahí".
Bábí and Bahá'í
Bahá'í sources state that the Báb fulfills the prophecy of the Mahdi, and the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (an Arabic word بهاء meaning "glory, splendor" etc.), which is the root word for Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í. It is also known as the 'Greatest Name'. The Báb wrote a noted pentagram-shaped tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.
According to Islamic tradition, a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in exactly the same form. For example, nobody may be named al-Malik (The King), but may be named Malik (King). This is because of the belief that God is almighty, and no human being is the equivalent of God, and no human being will ever be the equivalent of God. Muslims are allowed to use the 99 names of Allah for themselves but should not put 'Al' at the front of them.
However the names/attributes of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd -" which means "servant/slave" (of God) and are commonly used as personal names among Muslims. For example, ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ("Servant of the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The two parts of the name may be written separately (as above) or combined as one transliterated name; in such a case, the vowel transcribed after ‘Abd is often written as u when the two words are transcribed as one: e.g., Abdurrahman, Abdul'aziz, "Abdul-Jabbar," or even Abdullah ("Servant of God"). (This has to do with Arabic case vowels, the final u vowel showing the normal "quote" nominative/vocative case form: ‘abdu.)
Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99. Examples include
- Ra'ouf, such as Ra'ouf Mus'ad.
- Salam, such as Salam Fayyad.
- Kareem, such as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar.
- Fleming, Marrianne; Worden, David (2004). Religious Studies for AQA; Thinking About God and Morality. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-30713-4.
- Narrated by Ibn Majah, book of Du`a; and by Imam Malik in his Muwatta', Kitab al-Shi`r
- Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, no. 1410
- Dr. Mahmoud Abdul Razek Al Radwany a professor in the faculty of Sharia at Al Azhar University, Cairo “Of the 99 Names Of Allah That We Repeat: Only 69 Are Authentic” published in the Egyptian daily, Al Ahram, in Nov 18, 2005. His objections are mostly grammatical in that a ‘name’ in Arabic must be a noun: “only 69 of those names are authenticated from the Quran and Sunnah, while 29 are not authentic in that 22 are verbs or adjectives, and 7 are 'modafa' or ‘added to.’” Islamic Forum/
- Böwering, Gerhard. "God and his Attributes ." Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān.
- Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review 3 (1). http://bahai-library.com/?file=lambden_quintessence_greatest_name.
- Khadem, Dhikru'llah (March 1976). "Bahá'u'lláh and His Most Holy Shrine". Bahá'í News (540): Pp. 4–5. http://www.teachingandprojects.com/meansandmaterials.htm.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "greatest name". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 167–8. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Arabic theophoric names
- Names of God
- Names of God in Judaism
- Names of God in Hinduism
- "The Nine Billion Names of God", a short story by Arthur C. Clarke.
- Asmaul Husna Widget Displays a slideshow of the 99 Names of Allah in an Islamic ornamental frame.
- The Most Beautiful Names of Allah Gives a list of the names in English and Arabic as well as the verses in which they are found in the Qur'an.
- The Beautiful Names of Allah A site containing the derivation and meanings of the 99 names. Also has audio of someone saying each one.
- 99 Names of Allah The names of Allah in Arabic with English meaning and benefit virtues of reciting each Ism.
- The Most Beautiful Names of Allah The most beautiful names of Allah in Arabic with English transliteration and meaning.
- Benefits of reciting The Most Beautiful Names of Allah The benefits of reciting the most beautiful names of Allah.
- 99 Names of Allah With meanings and benefits of recitation.
- 99 Excellent Names of Allah with references to verses where the name appears in the Qur'an.
- The Most Beautiful Names of Allah with references to verses where the name appears in the Qur'an.
- The 99 Names and Attributes of Allah, numbered list of names and meanings.
- The beautiful names of Allah 99 names written clearly in Arabic
- Oil paintings of all the 99 names of Allah Also you can view 99 names of Prophet.
- 99 Names of Allah 99 names of almighty God with a brief description of each name.
- Asmāʼul-Husnā: The 99 Beautiful Names of Allah online book By M. R. Bawa Muhaiyaddeen
|This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Names of God in the Qur'an. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.|