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A kshullak (or kshullaka, lit. small or junior) is a junior Digambar Jain monk[1]. A kshullak wears two garments as opposed to a full monk who wears no clothes[2].

A kshullak is sometimes accorded the title Varni, when they are engaged in studying and teaching.

Well known kshullakas include:

  • Kshullakas Ganesh Varni
  • Kshullaka Jinendra Varni

A Digambara Jain shravaka at the highest rank of 11th pratima is either a kshullaka or an ailaka. He is just one step below a full muni. His conduct is prescribed in Vasunandi Shravakachara and Lati Samhita.

A kshullaka wears a loin cloth (kaupina) and a white rectangular cloth as a wrap. An ailak uses only a loin cloth.

A kshullaka may live in a house or may be a wanderer. He may eat food placed in his palms, or from a container. He eats once a day. He may beg from a single house or from multiple ones.

A kshullaka may keep a yajnopavita and a shikha. In Jain tradition, Narada muni is assumed to be a kshullaka Jain monk.

Kolhapur in Maharashtra was also once known as Kshullakapur because of the presence of a large number of Jain monks during the Shilahara rule.

See also


  1. Jain muni initiates his father into dharmic order
  2. Jinendra Varni, Jainendra Siddhanta Kosa, V.2, pages, 188-189