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|Saint John Cassian|
|Born||c. 360, Scythia Minor (now Dobruja, Romania)|
|Died||c. 435, Marseille, France|
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Catholic Churches|
|Major shrine||Monastery of St Victor, Marseille|
|Feast||February 29 (East); July 23 (West)|
Saint John Cassian (ca. 360 – 435) (Latin: Jo(h)annes Eremita Cassianus, Joannus Cassianus, or Joannes Massiliensis), John the Ascetic, or John Cassian the Roman, is a Christian theologian celebrated in both the Western and Eastern Churches for his mystical writings. He is known both as one of the "Scythian monks" and as one of the "Desert Fathers."
John Cassian was born around 360 probably in the region of Scythia Minor (now Dobruja in modern-day Romania), although some scholars assume a Gallic origin As a young adult, he and an older friend, Germanus, traveled to Palestine, where they entered a hermitage near Bethlehem. After remaining in that community for about three years, they journeyed to Egypt, which was rent by Christian struggles, and visited a number of monastic foundations. Approximately fifteen years later, in c.399, Cassian and Germanus fled the Anthropomorphic controversy provoked by Theophilus, Archbishop of Alexandria, with about 300 other Origenist monks. John Cassian and Germanus went to Constantinople, where they appealed to Saint John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, for protection. John Cassian was ordained a deacon and was made a member of the clergy attached to the Patriarch while the struggles with the Imperial family ensued. When the Patriarch was forced into exile from Constantinople in 404, the Latin-speaking John Cassian was sent to Rome to plead his cause before Pope Innocent I.
While he was in Rome John Cassian accepted the invitation to found an Egyptian style monastery in southern Gaul, near Marseille. He also may have spent time as a priest in Antioch between 404 and 415. Whatever the case, he arrived in Marseille around 415. His foundation, the Abbey of St Victor, a complex of monasteries for both men and women, was one of the first such institutes in the west, and served as a model for later monastic development. Cassian's abbey and writings influenced St. Benedict, who incorporated many of the same principles into his monastic rule (Regula Benedicti), and recommended to his own monks that they read the works of Cassian. Since Benedict's rule is still used by Benedictine, Cistercian, and Trappist monks, the thought of John Cassian still guides the spiritual lives of thousands of men and women in the Western Church.
John Cassian died in the year 435 in Marseille. He is a saint of the Eastern Orthodox Churches. His feast day is traditionally celebrated on February 29. Because this day occurs only once every four years on leap years, official Church calendars often transfer his feast to another date (usually the day before February 28).
The Roman Catholic Church also recognizes John Cassian as a saint, including him in the Roman Martyrology with a feastday on 23 July. While he is not one of the saints included in the General Roman Catholic calendar of saints, the Archdiocese of Marseilles and some monastic orders celebrate his memorial on that day.
John Cassian's relics are kept in an underground chapel in the Monastery of St Victor in Marseilles. His head and right hand are in the main church there.
John Cassian came very late into writing and only did so when a request was made by an important person or persons. His sources were the same as Evagrios, but he added his own personal ideas which were arranged in extensive collections.
John Cassian wrote two major spiritual works, the "Institutions" and "Conferences". In these, he codified and transmitted the wisdom of the Desert Fathers of Egypt. These books were written at the request of Castor, Bishop of Apt, of the subsequent Pope Leo I, and of several Gallic bishops and monks. The "Institutes" (Latin: "De institutis coenobiorum") deal with the external organization of monastic communities, while the "Conferences" (Latin: "Collationes") deal with "the training of the inner man and the perfection of the heart."
In Books 1-4 of "Institutions", Cassian discusses clothing, prayer and rules of monastic life. Books 5-12 are rules on morality, specifically addressing the eight evil vices- gluttony, luxury, avarice, wrath, sloth, negligence, vainglory and pride- and what to do to cure these vices.
"Conferences", dedicated to Pope Leo bishop of Frejus and the monk Helladius, summarize important conversations that Cassian had with elders from Scetis about principles of the spiritual and ascetic life. This book addresses specific problems of spiritual theology and the ascetic life.
His books were written in Latin, in a simple, direct style. They were swiftly translated into Greek, for the use of Eastern monks, an unusual honor.
Spirituality of John Cassian
The Desert Monks of Egypt followed a three-step path to mysticism. The first level was called the "Purgatio" during which the young monk struggled through prayer and ascetic practices to gain control of "the flesh" - specifically gluttony, lust, and the desire for possessions. During this period, the young monk was to learn that any strength he had to resist these desires (grace) came directly from the Holy Spirit. At the end of the "Purgatio," or in Greek "Catharsis" a period that often took many years, the monk had learned to trust peacefully in the Lord for all his needs. As the monk underwent this period of purging, he identified with Christ's temptation in the desert ( , Mark 1:12-13, Luke 4:1-13).
At this point the "Illuminatio" or in Greek "theoria" commenced. During this period the monk learned the paths to holiness revealed in the Gospel. During the "Illuminatio" many monks took in visitors and students, and tended the poor as much as their meager resources allowed. They identified strongly with Christ when he taught the Sermon on the Mount, recounted in Matthew chapters 5, 6, and 7. The monk continued his life of humility in the Spirit of God; his stoic acceptance of suffering often made him the only man capable of taking on heroic or difficult responsibilities for the local Christian community. Many monks died never having moved past this period.
The final stage was the "Unitio," or in Greek "theosis" a period when the soul of the monk and the Spirit of God bonded together in a union often described as the marriage of the Song of Solomon (also called the "Song of Songs," or the "Canticle of Canticles"). Elderly monks often fled into the deep desert or into remote forests to find the solitude and peace that this level of mystical awareness demanded. In this, the monk identified with the transfigured Christ, who after his resurrection was often hidden from his disciples. Ascetics who achieve this level of ascetic enlightenment are referred to as Schema.
John Cassian is considered to be the originator of the view that later became known as Semipelagianism. This emphasized the role of free will in that the first steps of salvation is in the power of the individual, without the need for divine grace. He was attempting to describe a "middle way" between Pelagianism, which taught that the will alone was sufficient to live a sinless life, and the view of Augustine of Hippo, that emphasizes original sin and the absolute need for grace. Cassian took no part in the controversy that arose shortly before his death; his first opponent, Prosper of Aquitaine, held him in high esteem as a man of virtue and did not name him as the source of the conflict. Semipelagianism was condemned by the Latin church in the local Council of Orange in 529. Since Semipelagianism has never been condemned by Eastern synods or the Seven Ecumenical Councils, the doctrine of St. John Cassian is regarded by many Orthodox theologians as the right descernment of "ancestral sin" in the Orthodox Church.
The views expressed by John Cassian to which critics have pointed as examples of his alleged semi-Pelagianism are found in his Conferences, in book 3, the Conference of Abbot Paphnutius; book 5, the Conference of Abbot Serapion; and most especially in book 13, the Third Conference of Abbot Chaeremon.
Effects on later thought
The spiritual traditions of John Cassian had an immeasurable effect on Western Europe. Many different western spiritualities, from that of Saint Benedict to that of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, owe their basic ideas to John Cassian. In particular, the "Institutes" had a direct influence on organization of monasteries described in the Rule of St. Benedict; Benedict also recommended that ordered selections of the Conferences be read to monks under his Rule. Moreover, the monastic institutions Cassian inspired kept learning and culture alive during the Early Middle Ages, and were often the only institutions that cared for the sick and poor. His works are excerpted in the Philokalia (Greek for "Love of the Beautiful"), the Eastern Orthodox compendium on mystical Christian prayer.
Even modern thinkers are beholden to John Cassian's thinking, although perhaps in ways the saint would not have expected. Michel Foucault was fascinated by the rigorous way Cassian defined and struggled against the "flesh." Perhaps because of investigations like these, Cassian's thought and writings are enjoying a recent popularity even in non-religious circles.
- free will
- Libertarianism (metaphysics)
- Stewart, Columba. "Cassian the Monk," New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
- Rousseau, Philip. "Cassian." In Hornblower, Simon and Antony Spawforth, eds. The Oxford Classical Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003. 298.
- Harper, James. "John Cassian and Sulpicius Severus," Church History vol. 34 (1965):371-380.
- Lake, Stephen. "Knowledge of the Writings of John Cassian in Early Anglo-Saxon England." Anglo-Saxon England 32 (2003): pp 27–41.
- Lake, p. 27; C. Stewart, Cassian the Monk (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
- Lake, p. 27.
- Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
- Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom : Triumph and Diversity, A.D. 200-1000. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. pp.111
- Encyclopedia of Religion. ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 3. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. p1447-1448.
- New Catholic Encyclopedia. vol. 3. 2nd ed. Detroit:Gale, 2003.p205-207
- Catholic Encyclopedia: St. John Cassian
- Text of the Institutes
- Text of the Conferences
- Text of On the Incarnation of the Lord (Against Nestorius)
- Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina
- Venerable John Cassian the Roman Orthodox icon and synaxarion
- Catholic Online-Saints & Angels: St. John Cassian
- The Ecole Initiative: St. John Cassian
- Patron Saints Index: St. John Cassian
ca:Joan Cassià cs:Jan Kassián gl:Xoán Casiano la:Ioannes Cassianus hu:Johannes Cassianus pt:João Cassiano ro:Ioan Casian ru:Иоанн Кассиан sl:Sveti Janez Kasijan sr:Јован Касијан sv:Johannes Cassianus