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Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Part of the Arab–Israeli conflict
A montage of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. From top to bottom right: A group of Palestinians protest in the West Bank, An Israeli missile hits Gaza, a group of Hamas militants, An Israeli tank firing a shell, Aftermath of an Israeli bombing run in Rafah.
Date Early 20th century-present
Location Israel, Palestinian territories
Result Ongoing

Flag of Palestine.svg
Flag of Israel.svg
Peace Process

Camp David Accords · Madrid Conference
Oslo Accords / Oslo II · Hebron Protocol
Wye River / Sharm el-Sheikh Memoranda
2000 Camp David Summit · Taba Summit
Road Map · Annapolis Conference

Primary Negotiation Concerns

Israel, West Bank, Gaza Strip, and Golan Heights

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between Israel and the Palestinians.[1] Although the conflict is wide-ranging, the key issues are border security, water rights, control of Jerusalem, land rights, and legalities concerning refugees. The violence resulting from the conflict has prompted other security and human rights concerns on both sides and internationally. It forms part of the wider Arab–Israeli conflict. The term is also used in reference to the earlier phases of the same conflict, between Zionist halutzim and the Arab population living in Palestine under Ottoman or British rule.

Many attempts have been made to broker a two-state solution, which would entail the creation of an independent Palestinian state alongside an independent Jewish state or next to the State of Israel (after Israel's establishment in 1948). As of 2009, a majority of both Israelis and Palestinians, according to a number of polls, prefer the two-state solution over any other solution as a means of resolving the conflict.[2] Moreover, a considerable majority of the Jewish public sees the Palestinians' demand for an independent state as just, and thinks Israel can agree to the establishment of such a state.[3] A majority of Palestinians and Israelis view the West Bank and Gaza Strip as an acceptable location of the hypothetical Palestinian state in a two-state solution.[4] However, there are significant areas of disagreement over the shape of any final agreement and also regarding the level of credibility each side sees in the other in upholding basic commitments.[5] A handful of academics advocate a one-state solution, whereby all of Israel, the Gaza Strip, and West Bank would become a bi-national state with equal rights for all.[6][7]

Within Israeli and Palestinian society, the conflict generates a wide variety of views and opinions. This highlights the deep divisions which exist not only between Israelis and Palestinians, but also within each society.

A hallmark of the conflict has been the level of violence witnessed for virtually its entire duration. Fighting has been conducted by regular armies, paramilitary groups, terror cells and individuals. Casualties have not been restricted to the military, with a large number of fatalities in civilian population on both sides.

There are prominent international actors involved in the conflict. The two parties engaged in direct negotiation are the Israeli government, currently led by Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), currently headed by Mahmoud Abbas. The official negotiations are mediated by an international contingent known as the Quartet on the Middle East (the Quartet) represented by a special envoy that consists of the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations. The Arab League is another important actor, which has proposed an alternative peace plan. Egypt, a founding member of the Arab League, has historically been a key participant.

Since 2003, the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between the two major factions: Fatah, the traditionally dominant party, and its later electoral challenger, Hamas. Following Hamas' seizure of power in the Gaza Strip in June 2007, the territory controlled by the Palestinian National Authority (the Palestinian interim government) is split between Fatah in the West Bank, and Hamas in the Gaza Strip. The division of governance between the parties has effectively resulted in the collapse of bipartisan governance of the Palestinian National Authority (PA).

A round of peace negotiations began at Annapolis, Maryland, United States, in November 2007. These talks aimed at having a final resolution by the end of 2008.[8] The parties agree there are six core, or 'final status,' issues which need to be resolved.[9]

  1. A History of Conflict:introduction, BBC
  2. "Just another forgotten peace summit." By Prof. Ephraim Yaar and Prof. Tamar Hermann. Published 11/12/2007.
  3. Kurtzer, Daniel and Scott Lasensky. "Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace ..." Google Book Search. 30 January 2009.
  4. Dershowitz, Alan. The Case for Peace: How the Arab-Israeli Conflict Can Be Resolved. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005
  5. "Just another forgotten peace summit." By Prof. Ephraim Yaar and Prof. Tamar Hermann. Published 11/12/2007.
    • The source of the Jewish public's scepticism — and even pessimism — is apparently the widespread belief that a peace agreement based on the "two states for two peoples" formula would not lead the Palestinians to end their conflict with Israel.
  6. Israel: The Alternative, The New York Review of Books, Volume 50, Number 16, October 23, 2003
  7. Virginia Tilley, The One-State Solution, University of Michigan Press (May 24, 2005), ISBN 0472115138
  8. New Mid-East peace drive launched, BBC News, 28 November 2007
    • "In furtherance of the goal of two states, Israel and Palestine, living side by side in peace and security, we agree to immediately launch good-faith bilateral negotiations in order to conclude a peace treaty, resolving all outstanding issues, including all core issues without exception, as specified in previous agreements." (Joint Understanding Read by President Bush at Annapolis Conference, Annapolis, November 27, 2007)
    • "As President Bush said, Prime Minister Olmert and President Abbas have agreed to an ambitious work plan to negotiate and resolve all outstanding issues, including all core issues, without exception, as specified in previous agreements, by the end of next year. These issues include borders, refugees, security, water, settlements, and Jerusalem." (Condoleezza Rice's Remarks at the Annapolis Conference, November 27, 2007)

This page uses content from the English Wikipedia. The original article was at Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The list of authors can be seen in the page history.