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Over the centuries of Islamic history, Muslim rulers, Islamic scholars, and ordinary Muslims have held many different attitudes towards other religions. Attitudes have varied according to time, place and circumstance.

Non-Muslims under Islam

Non-Muslims under Islamic law would be held under the status of dhimmi (from Arabic ذميّ th as pronounced in this) were allowed to "practice their religion, subject to certain conditions, and to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy" and guaranteed their personal safety and security of property, in return for paying tribute and acknowledging Muslim rule.[1] Taxation from the perspective of thimmis who came under the Muslim rule, was "a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes"[2] (but now lower under the Muslim rule[3][4]) and from the point of view of the Muslim conqueror was a material proof of the dhimmi's subjection.[2] Various restrictions and legal disabilities were placed on thimmis, such as prohibitions against bearing arms or giving testimony in courts in cases involving Muslims.[5]

The Qur'an distinguishes between the monotheistic People of the Book (ahl al-kitab) (Jews, Christians, Sabians and others), and polytheists or idolaters on the other hand. There are certain kind of restrictions, when involved with People of the Book, do not apply to polytheists. One example is Muslim males being allowed to marry a Christian or Jew, but not a polytheist. Muslim women, however may not marry non-Muslim men.[6]

The idea of Islamic supremacy is encapsulated in the formula "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."[6] Accordingly, Muslims must not place themselves in a position inferior to that of the followers of other religions.[7] Pursuant to this principle, Muslim women may not marry non-Muslim men, non-Muslims may not inherit from their Muslim relatives, and a testimony of a non-Muslim is inadmissible against a Muslim.[6]

Abraham, Moses, Hebrew prophets, and Jesus were all prophets of Islam, but according to Muslim tradition their message and the texts of the Torah and the Gospels were corrupted by Jews and Christians. Similarly, children of non-Muslim families are born Muslims, but are converted to another faith by their parents.[8]

Apostasy in Islam is punishable by death.[9] W. Heffening states that Shafi'is interpret verse [Qur'an 2:217] as adducing the main evidence for the death penalty in Qur'an.[10] Wael Hallaq states the death penalty was a new element added later and "reflects a later reality and does not stand in accord with the deeds of the Prophet." He further states that "nothing in the law governing apostate and apostasy derives from the letter of the holy text." [11]

Practice of the early Muslims

During the ten years that Muhammad led his followers against the Meccans and then against the other Arab tribes, Christian and Jewish communities who had submitted to Muslim rule were allowed to worship in their own way and follow their own family law, and were given a fair degree of self-government.

The Jews generally rejected Muhammad's status as a prophet.[12] According to Watt, "Jews would normally be unwilling to admit that a non-Jew could be a prophet."[13] In the Constitution of Medina, Muhammad demanded the Jews' political loyalty in return for religious and cultural autonomy.[12][14] However, after each major battle with the Medinans, Muhammad accused one of the Jewish tribes of treachery (See [Qur'an 2:100]). After Badr and Uhud, the Banu Qainuqa and Banu Nadir, respectively, were expelled "with their families and possessions" from Medina.[15]

After Muhammad's death in 632, the Islamic empire grew rapidly, encompassing what is now the Middle East, Egypt, North Africa, and Iran. Most of the new subjects were Christian or Jewish, and considered People of the Book. (After some argument, the Zoroastrians were considered People of the Book as well[16]). Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians were called dhimmi, protected peoples. As noted above, they could worship, follow their own family law, and own property. People of the Book were not subject to certain Islamic rules, such as the prohibitions on alcohol and pork, but were subject to other restrictions. Under the Islamic state, they were exempt from military service, but were required to pay a poll tax known as jizya. (They were, however, exempt from the zakat required of Muslims). They could be bureaucrats and advisors, but they could never be rulers.

They were not subject to forced conversion. In fact, under the first caliphs and the Ummayad dynasty, conversion was discouraged. Arab troops were settled in garrison towns like Kufa and Basra, in part to keep them separate from the conquered peoples. If a dhimmi wanted to convert, he/she could only do so by convincing an Arab to act as a sponsor or patron, adopting the dhimmi in the patron's tribe and making him/her an honorary Arab. There are claims that there were several instances in which entire communities wanted to convert, and were prevented; and that they were more useful as taxpayers.[17]

The Syriac Patriarch Ishôyahb III wrote in his correspondence to Simeon of Rewardashir, "As for the Arabs, to whom God has at this time given rule (shultãnâ) over the world, you know well how they act toward us. Not only do they not oppose Christianity, but they praise our faith, honour the priests and saints of our Lord, and give aid to the churches and monasteries."[18]

Later Islamic practice

Under the Ummayads and Abbasids, the Islamic community was increasingly fragmented into various sects and kingdoms, each of which had its own evolving policy towards dhimmi and towards conquered polytheists.

The Islamic heartland

In general, the policies of the territories comprising the earliest Islamic conquests were never harsh towards the dhimmis. Although conversion to Islam was made easier (all one had to do was to recite the confession of faith, many dhimmis did not convert as a result of Muslims tolerance. Areas that were majority Christian or Zoroastrian before the Arab conquest at some point became overwhelmingly Muslim. Moreover, at some point (it is not clear when), non-Muslims were forbidden to visit the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina, while some hadith even urged their exclusion from the entire Arabian peninsula.

Later Islamic conquests

With the Ghaznavids and later the Mughals, Islam also expanded further into northern India. Will Durant, in The Story of Civilization, described this as "probably the bloodiest story in history". This approach was not uniform, and different rulers adopted different strategies. The Mughal emperor Akbar, for example, was relatively tolerant towards Hindus, while his great-grandson Aurangzeb was heavily intolerant. Hindus were ultimately given the tolerated religious minority status of dhimmi. However, the underlying complexity of Hindu philosophy was useful in this regard, as it had always posited an underlying unity of all things, including the fusion of various deities into a single reality (Brahman).

The Buddhists of India were not as fortunate; although Buddhism had been in decline prior to the Muslim invasions, the destruction of monastic universities in the invasions such as Nalanda and Vikramashila were a calamity from which it never recovered. According to one Buddhist scholar, the monasteries were destroyed because they were large, fortified edifices considered threats by Muslim Turk invaders, not because they were non-Muslim institutions.[19]

The Almohad rulers of Muslim Spain were initially intolerant, and engaged in forced conversions ; Maimonides, for example, was forced to masquerade as a Muslim and eventually flee Spain after the initial Almohad conquest.

However, it is worth mentioning that most Muslims rulers in Spain could be considered tolerant with some exceptions. Christians were free to practice their own beliefs, and had kept their own churches. The tolerant atmosphere in Muslim Spain made it a refuge for Jews persecuted in other European lands.

Comparative religion and anthropology of religion

In the early 11th century, the Islamic scholar Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of religions across the Middle East, Mediterranean and especially the Indian subcontinent. Biruni's anthropology of religion was only possible for a scholar deeply immersed in the lore of other nations.[20] He carried out extensive, personal investigations of the peoples, customs, and religions of the Indian subcontinent, and was a pioneer in comparative religion and the anthropology of religion.

According to Arthur Jeffery, "It is rare until modern times to find so fair and unprejudiced a statement of the views of other religions, so earnest an attempt to study them in the best sources, and such care to find a method which for this branch of study would be both rigorous and just."[21] Biruni compared Islam with pre-Islamic religions, and was willing to accept certain elements of pre-Islamic wisdom which would conform with his understanding of the Islamic spirit.[22]

In the introduction to his Indica, Biruni himself writes that his intent behind the work was to engage dialogue between Islam and the Indian religions, particularly Hinduism as well as Buddhism.[21] Biruni was aware that statements about a religion would be open to criticism by its adherents, and insisted that a scholar should follow the requirements of a strictly scientific method. According to William Montgomery Watt, Biruni "is admirably objective and unprejudiced in his presentation of facts" but "selects facts in such a way that he makes a strong case for holding that there is a certain unity in the religious experience of the peoples he considers, even though he does not appear to formulate this view explicitly." Biruni argued that Hinduism was a monotheistic faith like Islam, and in order to justify this assertion, he quotes Hindu texts and argues that the worship of idols is "exclusively a characteristic of the common people, with which the educated have nothing to do."[21]

Biruni argued that the worship of idols "is due to a kind of confusion or corruption."[21] According to Watt, Biruni "goes on to maintain that in the course of generations the origin of the veneration of the images is forgotten, and further that the ancient legislators, seeing that the Veneration of images is advantageous, made it obligatory for the ordinary. He mentions the view of some people that, before God sent Prophets, all mankind were idol-worshippers, but he apparently does not presumably held that, apart from the messages transmitted by prophets, men could know the existence and unity of God by rational methods of philosophy." Biruni argued that "the Hindus, no less than the Greeks, have philosophers who are believers in monotheism."[21] Al-Biruni also compared Islam and Christianity, citing passages from the Qur'an and Bible which state that their followers should always speak the truth.[23]

Contemporary Islam

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, most Islamic states fell under the sway of European colonialists. The colonialists enforced tolerance, especially of European Christian missionaries. After World War II, there was a general retreat from colonialism, and predominantly Muslim countries were again able to set their own policies regarding non-Muslims. This period also saw the beginning of increased migration from Muslim countries into the First World countries of Europe, the UK, Canada, the US, etc. This has completely reshaped relations between Islam and other religions.

Predominantly Muslim countries

Some predominantly Muslim countries allow the practice of all religions. Of these, some limit this freedom with bans on proselytizing or conversion, or restrictions on the building of places of worship; others (such as Mali) have no such restrictions. In practice, the situation of non-Muslim minorities depends not only on the law, but on local practices, which may vary.

Some countries are predominantly Muslim and allow freedom of religion adhering to democratic principles. Of particular note are the following countries:[24]

  • Indonesia, Bangladesh, Malaysia have a significant population from the Hindu, Christian and Buddhist religions. They are allowed to practice their religions, build places of worship and even have missionary schools and organizations but with limitation of such practice. Some Muslim countries nationally observe Hindu, Christian and Buddhist holidays, e.g. Durga Puja, Maghi Purnima, Buddha Purnima, Ashari Purnima, Christmas etc.
  • In Syria, there are about 2.2 million Christians (10-12% of the population) from about 15 different religious and ethnic sects (Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, Church of the East, Protestants, Armenians Apostolic and various Catholics (Greek, Syrian, Aremenian, Chaldean, Maronite, Latin), as well as a few dozen Jews, and they have many hundreds of independent privately owned churches and some 15 synagogues. The freedom of religion is well observed by the state law as well as the historical long record of tolerance since the Ummayde caliph days. Christmas and Easter days are official holidays for both the Catholic or Orthodox calendar.

Some predominantly Muslim countries are more intolerant of non-Muslims:[opinion needs balancing]

  • Pakistan has different electorates for Muslims and non-Muslims, and limits the public positions a non-Muslim can hold.
  • Saudi Arabia limits religious freedom to a high degree, prohibiting public worship by other religions.
  • The now-overthrown Taliban regime in Afghanistan was considered intolerant by many observers. Some ancient Buddhist monuments, like the Buddhas of Bamyan, were destroyed as idolatrous.
  • The Islamic government of Iran recognizes Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians as minorities- although all three groups are subjected to some severe discrimination in practice - while the situation of Bahá'ís, considered by the government as a pro-Zionist, un-Islamic heresy, is far worse. See Religion in Iran and Persecution of Bahá'ís.
  • In Sudan, there was extensive use of the rhetoric of religious war by both parties in the decades-long battle between the Muslim North and the largely non-Muslim South (see Second Sudanese Civil War.)
  • In Egypt, a 16 December 2006 judgement of the Supreme Administrative Council created a clear demarcation between "recognized religions" — Islam, Christianity and Judaism — and all other religious beliefs; the ruling effectively delegitimatizes and forbids the practice of all but these aforementioned religions.[25][26] The ruling leaves members of other religious communities, including Bahá'ís, without the ability to obtain the necessary government documents to have rights in their country, essentially denying them of all rights of citizenship.[27] They cannot obtain ID cards, birth certificates, death certificates, marriage or divorce certificates, and passports; they also cannot be employed, educated, treated in public hospitals or vote among other things.[27] See Egyptian identification card controversy.

According to Islamic law, jizya (poll tax) is to be paid by all non-Muslims,[{{fullurl:{{wikipedia:FULLPAGENAME}}}}#endnote_note] excluding the weak and the poor, living in a Muslim state, to the general welfare of the state. Also, in his book "Al-Kharaj," Abu Yusuf says, "No Jizya is due on females or young infants." In exchange for the tax, the non-Muslims are required to be given security, provided compensation from the Muslim Exchequer when they are in need, treated on equality with Muslims, and enjoy rights as nationals of the state. Al-Balathiri comments on this saying, "Khaled Ibn Al-Walid, on entering Damascus as a conqueror, offered a guarantee of security to its people and their properties and churches, and promised that the wall of the city would not be pulled down, and none of their houses be demolished. It was a guarantee of God, he said, and of the Caliph and all believers to keep them safe and secure on condition they paid the dues of the Jizya."[28] This poll tax is different from the alms tax (Zakah) paid by the Muslim subjects of a Muslim state. Whereas jizya is compulsory and paid by the tolerated community per head count, zakat was paid only if one can afford it. Muslims and non-Muslims who hold property, especially land, were required however to pay Kharaj.

Territorial disputes

One of the open issues in the relation between Islamic states and non-Islamic states is the claim from hardline Muslims that once a certain land, state or territory has been under 'Muslim' rule, it can never be relinquished anymore, and that such rule, somewhere in history would give the Muslims a kind of an eternal right on the claimed territory. This claim is particularly controversial with regard to Israel and to a lesser degree Spain and parts of the Balkan and it applies to India as well.

Islamic views on religious pluralism

Islam does not view itself as the only true path for following the will of Allah (God) and going to Jannah (Paradise, Heaven).[29]

Muslims consider the monotheistic faiths that preceded it, Judaism and Christianity, to be valid in its original form.[30] Muslims also believe that the Quran confirms the scriptures that came before including the Torah and the Gospel.[31]

Reference to Islamic views on religious pluralism is found in the Quran. The following verses are generally interpreted as an evidence of religious pluralism:

Surah Al-Ma'idah verse 48 states:

If Allah so willed, he would have made you a single People, but his plan is to test each of you separately, in what He has given to each of you: so strive in all virtues as in you are in a race. The goal of all of you is to Allah. It is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute. (Qur'an 5:48)

Surah Al-Ankabut verse 46 states:

And dispute not with the People of the Book, except with means better than mere disputation, unless I be with those of them who inflict wrong and injury, but say to them: "We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our God and your God is one; and it is to Him that we bow." (Qur'an 29:46)

The Quran criticizes Christians and Jews who believed that their own religions the only source of Truth.

They say, if you want to be guided to salvation, you should either become a Jew or Christian. Say: What about the religion of Abraham, he also worshiped no one but Allah. We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, to Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes of Israel, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to all prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah. So, if they believe, they are indeed on the right path, but if they turn back, Allah will suffice them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. This is the Baptism of Allah. And who can baptize better than Allah. And it is He Whom we worship. Say: Will you dispute with us about Allah, He is our Lord and your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and you for yours; and that We are sincere in Him? Or do ye say that Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than Allah? Ah! who is more unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from Allah. But Allah is not unmindful of what ye do! That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case.( (Qur'an 5:135-141)

Surah Al-Baqara verse 113 states:

The Jews say: "The Christians have nothing to stand upon"; and the Christians say: "The Jews have nothing to stand upon." Yet they both have something to stand upon, they both recite the Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not; but Allah will judge between them in their quarrel on the Day of Judgment. (Qur'an 2:113)

Many Muslims agree that cooperation with the Christian and Jewish community is important but some Muslims believe that theological debate is often unnecessary:

Say: “O People of the Book! Come to what is common between us and you: That we worship none but God, that we associate no partners with Him, that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords other than Allah. If then they turn back, say: 'Bear witness that we are bowing to Allah’s will.'" (Qur'an 2:113)

Islam's fundamental theological concept is belief in one God. Muslims are not expected to visualize God but to worship and adore him as a protector. Any kind of idolatry is condemned in Islam.(Qur'an 112:2) As a result, Muslims hold that for someone to worship any other gods or deities other than Allah (Shirk (polytheism)) is a sin that will lead to separation from Allah. Most Muslims consider Hindus to be polytheists while some argue that those Hindus who are of high moral character can enter Paradise.

Belief in Trinity is also condemned in the Quran.[32]

Muslims believe that Allah sent the Qur'an to bring peace and harmony to humanity through Islam (submission to Allah).[33] Muhammad's worldwide mission was to establish universal peace under the Khilafat.

The Khilafat ensured security of the lives and property of non-Muslims under the dhimmi system.

This status was originally only made available to non-Muslims who were "People of the Book" (Christians and Jews), but was later extended to include Zoroastrians, Sikhs,Hindus, Mandeans(Sabians), and Buddhists.

Dhimmi had more rights than other non-Muslim religious subjects, but often fewer legal and social rights than Muslims. Some Muslims, however, disagree, and hold that adherents of these faiths cannot be dhimmi.

Dhimmi enjoyed some freedoms under the state founded by Muhammad and could practice their religious rituals according to their faith and beliefs.

It should be noted that non-Muslims who were not classified as "people of the book", for example practitioners of the pre-Muslim indigenous Arabian religions, had few or no rights in Muslim society.

Muslim rule spread through conquest and this indirectly coerced many to convert to Islam. In other words, war was waged to put lands under Muslim rule, but the subjects were theoretically free to continue practice whatever religion they chose. However, the non-Muslim dhimmis were subject to taxation jizyah at a different rate of the Muslim zakat. Dhimmis also faced economic impediments, restrictions on political participation and/or social advancement based on their non-Muslim status.

Religious persecution is also not sanctioned by some readings of Islam,[Qur'an 10:99–100 (Translated by Yusuf Ali)] but is partly due to cruel rulers, or general economic hardships in the societies they are in. pre-Islamic religious minorities continue to exist in some of their native countries, although only as marginal percentages of the overall population.

Over the centuries, several known religious debates, and polemical works did exist in various Muslim countries between various Muslim sects, as well as between Muslims and non-Muslims. Many of these works survive today, and make for some very interesting reading in the apologetics genre. Only when such debates spilled over to the unlearned masses, and thus causing scandals, and civil strife did rulers intervene to restore order and pacify the public outcry on the perceived attack on their beliefs.

As for sects within Islam, history shows a variable pattern. Various sects became intolerant when gaining favour with the rulers, and often work to oppress or eliminate rival sects, for example, the contemporary persecution of Muslim minorities in Saudi Arabia.[34] Sectarian strife between Shia and Sunni inhabitants of Baghdad is well known through history.

Forced conversion

Many Muslim scholars believe that Quranic verses such as "Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error" (Qur'an 2:256) and (Qur'an 18:29) show that Islam prohibits forced conversion towards people of any religion.

The meaning of this verse 9:5 has however been a subject of discussion amongst other scholars of Islam as well (see At-Tawba 5). This Surah was revealed in the historical context of a broken treaty between Muslims and a group of idolaters during the time of Prophet Muhammed. Regarding this verse, Quranic translator M. A. S. Abdel Haleem writes: "in this context, this definitely refers to the ones who broke the treaty"[35] rather than polytheists generally.

According to historian Bernard Lewis, forced conversions played a role especially in the 12th century under the Almohad dynasty of North Africa and Andalusia as well as in Persia where the Shi'a sect of Islam is dominant.[36] He is however also of the opinion that other incidents of forced conversions have been rare in Islamic history. He adds that "In the early centuries of Islamic rule there was little or no attempt at forcible conversion, the spread of the faith being effected rather by persuasion and inducement."[37][38][39] A few well-known examples of forced conversion are:[38]

  • Anusim of Meshhad, Jewish community forced on pain of death to convert in 1839 under Safawid rule. Most continued Jewish practices in secret and many of their descendents returned to Judaism in the early 20th century.[40]
  • Francis Bok - Sudanese-American activist, from Christianity; later returned to his Christian faith.[41]
  • Steve Centanni and Olaf Wiig - forced to convert at gunpoint by terrorists of the Holy Jihad Brigades.[42]
  • Sabbatai Zevi - convert from Judaism, 17th century mystic, pseudo-Messiah and the self-proclaimed "King of Jews". Converted ostensibly of his own free will, while in prison. Although, some speculate that he may have been executed for treason had he not converted,[43] Muslim authorities were opposed to his death.[44]

See also



  1. Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cl. Cahen in Encyclopedia of Islam, Jizya article
  3. Lewis 1984 p.18
  4. Lewis (2002) p.57
  5. Lewis (1987), p. 9, 27; Bat Ye'or (2002), p. 74
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Friedmann (2003), p. 35
  7. Friedmann (2003), p. 37
  8. Friedmann (2003), p. 18
  9. "Murtadd", Encyclopedia of Islam Quote: "A woman who apostasizes is to be executed according to some jurists, or imprisoned according to others."
  10. W. Heffening, in Encyclopedia of Islam
  11. Encyclopedia of the Quran, Apostasy
  12. 12.0 12.1 Esposito, John. 1998. Islam: the Straight Path, extended edition. Oxford university press, p.17
  13. The Cambridge History of Islam, pp. 43-44
  14. Jacob Neusner, God's Rule: The Politics of World Religions, p. 153, Georgetown University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-87840-910-6
  15. Esposito, Islam: the straight path, extended edition, Oxford University Press, pp. 10-11
  16. Zoroaster and Zoroastrians in Iran, by Massoume Price, Iran Chamber Society, retrieved March 24, 2006
  17. Berkey, Jonathan (1980). The Formation of Islam (2003 ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  18. Sidney H. Griffith: Disputing with Islam in Syriac
  19. The Historical Interaction between the Buddhist and Islamic Cultures before the Mongol Empire, by Alexander Berzin, The Berzin Archives, retrieved March 24, 2006
  20. J. T. Walbridge (1998). "Explaining Away the Greek Gods in Islam", Journal of the History of Ideas 59 (3): 389-403
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 William Montgomery Watt (2004-04-14). "BĪRŪNĪ and the study of non-Islamic Religions". Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
  22. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, p. 166, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0791415163
  23. Mohamed, Mohaini (2000), Great Muslim Mathematicians, Penerbit UTM, pp. 71–2, ISBN 9835201579, OCLC 48759017 
  24. Bangladesh Official Government Holidays 2001, bicn, 2002, retrieved March 25, 2006
  25. Mayton, Joseph (2006-12-19). "Egypt's Bahais denied citizenship rights". Middle East Times. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  26. Otterman, Sharon (2006-12-17). "Court denies Bahai couple document IDs". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 Nkrumah, Gamal (2006-12-21). "Rendered faithless and stateless". Al-Ahram weekly. Retrieved 2007-01-23. 
  28. The Poll Tax (jizya),, retrieved March 23, 2006
  29. Qur'an: 2:62, 3:99
  30. Qur'an: 5:44, 5:69,3:199
  31. Qur'an: (5:48–74
  32. Qur'an: (5:72–74
  33. Islam and Universal Peace Sayyid Qutb1977 ISBN:B0006CU4HG
  35. The Qur'an: A new translation by M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, 2005, Oxford University Press
  36. Lewis (1984), p. 17, 18, 94, 95.
  37. Lewis (1984) p. 151
  38. 38.0 38.1 Waines (2003) p. 53
  39. Esposito (2002) p. 71
  40. Patai, Raphael (1997). Jadid al-Islam: The Jewish "New Muslims" of Meshhed. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2652-8. 
  41. Beale, Lewis. "Precious Freedom. USA Weekend Magazine. November 9, 2003.
  42. "Kidnapped Fox journalists released". CNN. Retrieved August 27, 2006. 
  43. Sabbatai Zevi -
  44. Geoffrey L Lewis; Cecil Roth. New Light on the Apostasy of Sabbatai Zevi. The Jewish Quarterly Review


  • Bat Ye'or (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude. Where Civilizations Collide. Madison/Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press/Associated University Presses. ISBN 0-8386-3943-7. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (1984). The Jews of Islam. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00807-8. 
  • Lewis, Bernard (2002). The Arabs in History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280310-7. 
  • Esposito, John (2002). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195157133. 
  • Friedmann, Yohanan (2003). Tolerance and Coercion in Islam: Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521026994. 
  • Waines, David (2003). An Introduction to Islam. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521539064.