The following is a glossary of terms used by Messianic Jews. Since Messianic Jews regard their religion as both a Jewish and a New Testament belief, some Christian terms are used in Jewish ways, and some Jewish terms are used in Christian ways.
Accordingly, Jewish and Christian terms are listed in parallel columns for comparison.
The definitions are not to be understood as statements of ultimate truth, but examples of perceived meanings in each group.
The glossary is in alphabetical order, and the groups are listed in alphabetical order.
|Term||Christian perception||Jewish perception||Messianic perception|
|Ending to a prayer, "one of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church"||A word indicating agreement, generally said when hearing another person recite a bracha, or benediction.||Let the truth become true, from the Hebrew root, emuneh.|
|The complete and voluntary abandonment of Christian faith whether by embracing another religion or embracing a secular philosophy incompatible with Christian faith.
Theoretically impossible for a "saved" person according to the Calvinistic doctrine of the Perseverance of the Saints, but possible in an Arminian doctrinal system.
|(1) rebellion against God and Torah and/or desertion of the faith of Israel; does not necessarily mean the adoption of a competing religion. The term acquired strongly negative connotations in the Middle Ages when a number of prominent baptized Jews publicly maligned Judaism and facilitated persecution of Jews.
(2) Jews converting to another religion and persons of Jewish parentage raised within another religion Apostasy to Christianity or "Messianic Judaism" is considered idolatry.
See Jews in apostasy.
|Leaving one faith for another. Normally used in reference to own religion. Jews becoming Messianics are seen as "fulfilled" or "completed." Christians becoming Jews are seen as "Apostates". Primary scriptural passages regarding apostasy (Hebrews 6:4-6) are seen to be injunctions against returning to the Temple Sacrificial system and "not to deal abstractly with the 'eternal security of the believer.'"|
|The Twelve Apostles of Jesus, or Paul of Tarsus, or Christ himself, or the Seventy Disciples in the Orthodox church.||"Apostoloi was the official name given to the men sent by the rulers of Jerusalem to collect the half-shekel tax for the Temple, the tax itself being called apostolé."||"Apostle" is a Greek term. David Stern uses the word "Emissary" as a translation in his Jewish New Testament (compare also Murdock's use of "Legate" in his translation of the Peshitta).|
|As a description, "antichrists" are anyone who denies that Jesus is the Messiah or Christ. As a title, "The Antichrist" is associated with the "False Prophet," a king or leader who makes the world worship "The Beast" and take its mark of 666, beheading others who refuse. He is then defeated by Jesus at the Second Coming. Among Christians there has been much speculation about his true identity.||Unused term (see Failed Messiah). The closest equivalent to an antagonistic future world power can be found in speculative writings about a future persecutor described by Saadia Gaon as “Armilus.”||See Christian perception, but use term "Anti-Messiah."|
|(1) the work of Christ; the benefits of Christ received by believers on account of his death and resurrection.
(2) the action by which God and the world are reconciled or made one. This is accomplished through Christ's satisfaction for all offense or injury to God. The specific method by which Christ accomplishes this has been a subject of long term debate among Christians.
|Reconciliation or unification of two estranged parties. The concept has roots in the offering of sacrifices and the provision of ransom. However, the Biblical prophetic tradition and all later Jewish tradition has understood atonement as the process by which a person estranged from God is reconciled with God. Through this process a person experiences full regeneration and renewal of his or her original unbroken relationship with God.
Jewish tradition recognizes a number of different actions and attitudes that have the power to effect this reconciliation and regeneration of spirit: teshuva (repentance), avodah (heartfelt prayer), tzedakah(charity), fasting, the experience of suffering, and the study of Torah. These actions can effect atonement because God is merciful in nature and desires reconciliation more than vengeance or punishment.
|Understood in the Christian sense, requiring both repentance and blood sacrifice—specifically the sacrifice of Yeshua on the stake|
|Avodah zarah||Unknown Term. (cf Idolatry)||Strange Worship / Idolatry. Forbidden for both Jews (as a violation of Torah) and Gentiles (as a violation of the seven Noahide Laws). There is a matter of dispute between Jewish authorities over whether Christianity is idolatry for non-Jews however, Orthodox Jewish authorities hold that regardless of its permissibility for Gentiles, it does constitute idolatry for Jews, even if they profess themselves to be Christian or "Messianic".||Strange Worship / Idolatry. Forbidden for both Jews (as a violation of Torah) and Gentiles (as a violation of the seven Noahide Laws).|
|Frequently called the first sacrament of the Church, see also Baptism of Jesus||A Christian term, but related to Mikvah practice, Conversion to Judaism, Nazirite practice.|
|Unknown term.||New Covenant between God and Israel. Understood as applied in to the end of time when the covenant at Sinai is reconfirmed.||The New Covenant with all people, Jews and Gentiles. Understood as originating in Jeremiah 31, when the covenant at Sinai is internalized (i.e. "the New Covenant has been given as Torah" and not as a replacement for Torah). Also used as a substitute for the term “New Testament.”|
|Unknown term.||(1) An act of kindness
(2) One of the seven midot or attributes of God
(3) In Jewish Kabbalah, one of the 10 sephirot. Sometimes referred to as Gdulah. Translated as love, loving-kindness, compassion, greatness, or grace
|Grace in the Christian sense, i.e. unmerited favor|
|1) Covenantal view: those with a saving faith in Jesus Christ who are individually elected to believe. 2) Dispensationalistic view: Israel (although this does not translate into a belief that Jews are “saved”). 3) Dual covenant view: Israel (and this does translate into a belief that Jews are “saved.”)||Phrase indicating that Jews have been chosen to fulfill a mission of proclaiming God's truth among the nations. Implies a greater level of responsibility. Does not imply any form of superiority.||Israel, chosen by God at Sinai (although this does not translate into a belief that non-Christian Jews are “saved.”)|
|The Messiah Jesus.||Septuagint translation of the Hebrew word Messiach (anointed one). Used solely by Christians to describe Jesus of Nazareth.||Unused term with Gentile connotations. They use the Jewish term Messiah with the Christian meaning of the Divine Son.|
|People of any ethnic group including Jews who believe in Jesus Christ (John 3:16). Some profess the Nicene Creed, some propose the Apostles' Creed, some propose sola scriptura.||Persons who follow Jesus as Messiah and are the continuation of the community described in Acts 11:26.||Gentiles who believe in Jesus Christ.|
|1) Protestants: the Old and New Testaments. 2) Roman Catholics include the Deuterocanonical books. 3) Orthodox include the Anagignoskomena of the Septuagint.||Books added by Christians to Tanakh to create their Bible||Messianics regard the "Bible" to be a single entity including the Tanakh and the New Testament as "Two Testaments, One Bible".|
|Any of the biblically defined relationships between God and his people, unilateral or bilateral. Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism are highly regarded, but idiosyncratic, versions of this thinking. Covenant theology sees all Dispensations as expressions of a single relationship. Dispensationalist theology sees all Covenants as expressions of multiple, successive, relationships. Dual Covenant theology sees Jewish and Christian Covenants as parallel relationships with God. "B'rit" is a familiar term to adherents of British Israelism.||The biblical covenants, especially Sinai.||The biblical covenants, especially Sinai, upheld by the Messiah. The covenants are seen as a unity, imperfectly reflected by de-Judaizing the Church or by rejection of Yeshua by Jews. The covenants are described as an "Olive Tree" by which Gentiles can be grafted into the destiny of Israel|
|The wooden structure used for the crucifixion of Jesus. The symbol of Christianity.||A wooden structure used by the Romans to inflict slow, painful, public death, for example after the Third Servile War, 6,000 rebel slaves were crucified along the road between Rome and Capua. The Christian use of the cross as a symbol resulted in the symbol being associated with hundreds of years of persecution.||The wooden structure used for the crucifixion of Jesus. Because of the negative historic connotations “execution stake” is substituted since Greek stauros only means stake not necessarily a cross beam. Stern's Jewish New Testament uses the term "stake". See also Cross or stake as gibbet on which Jesus died.|
|God-killing, historically used against the Jews, see also Responsibility for the death of Jesus. Considered Anti-Semitic by some Christians when applied to beliefs about Jewish actions against Jesus portrayed in the NT.||Considered Anti-Semitic when applied to beliefs about Jewish actions against Jesus portrayed in the NT.||Considered Anti-Semitic when applied to beliefs about Jewish actions against Yeshua portrayed in the NT.|
|Term||Christian perception||Jewish perception||Messianic perception|
|Easter||Christian holiday, linked to Passover, see also Easter controversy.||Christian holiday.||Pagan holiday, commonly believed to have "replaced" the L-rd's Pesach. Cannot be found in original Hebrew or Greek text and is not Biblically sound.|
|People with a saving faith in Jesus Christ, either 1) individually elected to believe (classical Calvinism, Arminianism, Roman Catholicism) or 2) corporately elected by being in the body of believers (Pelagianism, Dispensationalism).||Unusual word for “Chosen.”||The descendants of Avraham through Yitz'chak to whom the everlasting theocratic covenents were made, including Avrahamic, Mosaic, Israeli, Davidic, and New (Jer 31:31)|
|Associated with False Christs, the Antichrist, and those claiming to be Jesus.||One who claims to be the Messiah (or others claim to be the Messiah) and fails to rebuild the temple, gather all Jews to Israel, set up worldwide peace, and bring knowledge of God to entire world. Commonly held examples are Jesus, Bar Kochba, Shabbatai Z’vi, and Menachem Schneerson, see also Jewish Messiah claimants. Jesus is associated with the opposite of Messianic expectations (his biography is close in time to the destruction of the temple, the scattering of Jews from Israel, catastrophic war, and the founding of a religion that has sometimes been hostile to Jews).||One who claims to be the Messiah (or others claim to be the Messiah) and fails to rebuild the temple, gather all Jews to Israel, set up worldwide peace, and bring knowledge of God to entire world. Commonly held examples are Bar Kochba, Shabbatai Z’vi, and Menachem Schneerson. Jesus is understood to fulfill these expectations at a second coming.|
|A prerequisite for entering the Christian covenant (i.e. state of salvation). Cannot be produced without the Holy Spirit.||Not a prerequisite for entering the Mosaic or Noachide covenant, but a response to God. A reliance that God will do as He promised, which enables and encourages His faithful to do the same in return.||A prerequisite for entering the Christian covenant (i.e. state of salvation). Cannot be produced without the Holy Spirit.|
|The tree is a common symbol (or type) of Israel, Jesus cursed The Fig Tree ( , 11:20-23, cf. ) as well as Cleansed the Temple ( ), widely interpreted as God's rejection of Judaism.||Obscure and generally unused, although it is possible to find reference to figs as a metaphor for the Jewish people, and/or of personal growth through Torah. A more common reference would be in relation to understanding the Christian use of it. "Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark xiii. 28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark xi. 13-14, 20-23)."||See Christian meaning.|
|Triune God: The Father, The Son, The Holy Spirit in single essence. This is not a compound unity; each personal dimension is fully God. This is not modalism; God is always Father, Son, and Spirit. This is not tritheism; there is only One God and not two or three. God relates to His faithful as a distant Judge (Father), an ever-present Love and Help (Son), and an invisible inspiration (Spirit) – but it is the same God being experienced .||One God: single Infinite Person who is a distant Judge, an ever-present Love and Help, and an invisible inspiration – with the multiplicity of experiences being a reflection of mortal limitations, and not of God's infinite nature. However, Jews do sometimes speak of this single God in different ways: Elohim (when thinking of judgment), the Divine Name (when thinking of mercy). Also, God is seen both in masculine ways (judgment) and feminine ways (shekinah, mercy).||Messianics range from an orthodox Christian conception of the Trinity, to a belief in a Compound God in three persons: Father, Son, and Spirit.|
|Central teaching of Jesus.||The rule is recognized as a teaching of Hillel the Elder.||Derivative of Leviticus 19:18; Hillel and Jesus are seen as negative (do not do...) and positive (do...) complimentary applications.|
|1) the Good News (Greek: Eu-angellion, good-message). Evangelism is bringing someone the Good News of Jesus. Acceptance or belief in the good news essential to becoming a Christian. 2) one of the four books in the New Testament about the life of Jesus. 3) Colloquially, something absolutely certain and trustworthy ("it's the gospel truth!").||1) one of the four books in the Christian Scriptures (i.e. New Testament) about Jesus. 2) Something a Christian is preaching.||1) the Good News (Greek: Eu-angellion, good-message). Evangelism is bringing someone the Good News of Yeshua. Acceptance or belief in the good news essential to becoming a Messianic. 2) one of the four books in the B'rit Chadassah about the life of Yeshua.|
|Grace||charis: Unmerited favor, and the basis of God's mercy (i.e. if "mercy" were earned, it would be unnecessary).||(1) Birchat HaMazon - a prayer of thanks after eating
(2) Chen/Chanun - gracefulness, charm
(3) Chesed - mercy
(4) Rachamim/Rachum - loving kindness kindness.
|Unknown term. The Christian equivalent to the Jewish concept is the use of “GOD” or “LORD” when translating the Divine Name. Although sometimes accused of being a “Jewish superstition” (see articles on the American Standard Version and the New World Translation), the Christian practice is based on New Testament translation of the Divine Name in quotations of the Hebrew Bible as kyrios (Lord) or theos (God). The justification is that there are no other gods to distinguish God from, and use of the name is redundant.||Literally “The Name” as a substitute for the Divine Name when not in prayer. When in prayer, “Adonai” (my lord) is substituted. The practice is based on the commandment to “not take the name of the LORD in vain”. If the Divine Name is not used in general practice, it will not be taken in vain. Historically the use was reserved for the High Priest on the Day of Atonement. Tetragrammaton.||Sometimes used as with Jewish practice.|
|Old Testament||Tanakh, specifically the Masoretic Text||Tanakh|
|Generally an unused term, instead: Jewish Christians or Messianic Jews.||Members of a Christian group who may or may not be Jewish, but who use claims of Jewish identity as a means to convince Jews to convert to Christianity.||Christians who were born Jewish and do not worship in Judaic ways.|
|Place of eternal punishment, Lake of Fire or "outer darkness." Roman Catholics also believe in Purgatory which is temporary punishment for those already destined for Heaven.||Gehenna is a place of purification for sinners that usually lasts up to a year, though some extremely wicked people may simply cease to exist after that time as Judaism does not typically promote the idea of eternal torment. Similar to Catholic purgatory, prayer from loved ones may speed and ease the process. Sometimes Gehinnom is seen below the earth, sometimes above, sometimes wholly distant.||See Christian perspective.|
|1) 3rd person of the Triune God, 2) the influence (spirit / wind) of God.||Term generally not used.
Conceived as something distinct from God, associated with noise and light, and speaks in both a feminine and masculine voice. Dwells in generation in proportion to its worthiness. The books of the bible are the visible result of its activity. The gift of prophesy is a sign of its presence.
|Ruach HaKodesh. 1) 3rd person of the Compound-Unity God (see Trinity), 2) the influence (spirit / wind) of God.|
|Term shouted by the crowds to Jesus in Matthew 21:9 as they waved palm branches just before Passover in the spring||"part of the Hallel ... familiar to everyone in Israel." A petition for deliverance spoken as branches are waved during Sukkot in the fall|
|Generally used against Paganism or non-Abrahamic religions.||It is a matter of dispute among Jewish authorities whether Christianity is seen as being idolatrous for non-Jews, however, the Orthodox Jewish view is that it is considered avodah zarah (idolatry) for Jews, even if they self-identify as Christians or "Messianics".|
|"...The virgin will be with child..." (NIV) or "...Look, the young woman is with child..." (NRSV)||"...Look, the young woman is with child..." (NJPS) Translation dispute attributed to the Septuagint.|
|Latinized and Anglicized transliteration of Koine Greek Ίησους (elsewhere translated: Joshua). The Christian Messiah.||The Greco-Anglicized form of the name Yehoshua, or its shortened form Yeshua, claimed by Christians to be a deity. The Christian Messiah.||Yeshua. The Jewish Messiah.|
|1) The Biblical Israelites. 2) People who practice Judaism with or without belief in Jesus.||People who were born Jewish or had a valid conversion to Judaism. Note: valid converts are treated as if they are naturally born Jewish—even if they later convert to another religion.||People who were born Jewish or had a valid conversion to Judaism. Note: valid converts are treated as if they are naturally born Jewish—even if they later convert to another religion.|
|Judaizers||Early Christians opposed by Paul, and modern Christians who try to pressure Gentile Christians to more fully observe Torah.||Christians who adopt some Jewish customs for missionary purposes or a slur against Jewish practice in general.|
|Term||Christian perception||Jewish perception||Messianic perception|
|Unfamiliar term, except in the Syrian Orthodox church and among advocates of Aramaic primacy.||Unknown term.||Apostle. Aramaic translation of name given to Simon by Jesus, meaning “Rock.” Used instead of “Peter” because of historic “Christian” (meaning Gentile Christian) connotations.|
|Commonly used in congregational prayer. When a disciple ask "Lord teach us to pray" - Jesus replied, "In this manner, therefore, pray:". Also considered the Disciple's prayer, as Jesus was instructing how to pray ||Understood as a Christian term, but similar to Jewish prayers.|
|Christ, Divine, God the Son, eternal king who saves sinners from sin and will judge the living and the dead at the end of time.||Future king who will rebuild the temple, gather all Jews to Israel, set up worldwide peace, and bring knowledge of God to entire world.||Divine, God the Son, eternal king who saves sinners from sin and will judge the living and the dead at the end of time.|
|Jewish Christians who believe in Jesus, whether or not they worship in Judaic ways.||Having to do with the Messiah.||Jews and Gentiles who believe in Jesus and worship in Judaic ways (this normally excludes Hebrew Christians such as Jews for Jesus).|
|Generally an unused term: Christians||Generally an unused term: Christians||Messianics who are not ethnically Jewish or had never converted to Judaism before believing in Jesus.|
|Messianics / Christians||Members of a Christian group who may or may not be Jewish, but who use claims of Jewish identity as a means to convince Jews to convert to Christianity.||Messianics who are ethnically Jewish or who had converted to Judaism before believing in Jesus.|
|The Christian 27-books of Matthew through Revelation, the Greek Orthodox use the term Καινή Διαθήκη.||Term for the Christian books of Matthew through Revelation that implies the Tanakh has been replaced or relegated to a lesser status. Jews use the term "Christian Scriptures" (see entry for Christian Bible)||The Messianic books of Matthew through Revelation. Messianics use the term "B'rit Chadassah" (see entry for B'rit Chadassah).|
|Not a Christian term. Closest equivalent could be "heaven."||The world to come. Speculations are that (with very few exceptions) "all Israel has a share in the world to come." Also, "the righteous of all nations have a share in the world to come."||Heaven.|
|Protestant: The books of the Hebrew Bible; Roman Catholic include the Deuterocanonicals; Greek Orthodox: Septuagint, see also Template:Books of the Old Testament.||Dismissive term for the Tanakh, implying that it has been replaced.||Christian (meaning Gentile Christian) term for the Tanakh; usually avoided.|
|The Holy Spirit||Rabbinical term, an advocate before court. Generally pronounced "prahk-LEET". Contrast with Satan (the Accuser).|
|"The Apostle". Pharisee who converted to Christianity. Understood as an expert scholar in Pharisaic Judaism, "Apostle to the Gentiles".||Hellenistic theological founder of Christianity. Understood as being generally ignorant of Judaism.||Theological powerhouse. Rabbinic scholar. Most prolific writer of the New Testament. Name is avoided because of historic “Christian” (meaning Gentile Christian) connotations. Sha’ul is substituted.|
|Pentecost||The day the Holy Spirit descended on the Church.||Greek term for Shavuot.|
|A first century Jewish sect depicted in the N.T. as self-righteous, see also Woes of the Pharisees. The term is generally negative in common English usage.||Predecessors of Rabbinic Judaism, such as Hillel the Elder.|
|"...they have pierced my hands and my feet." NIV "...My hands and feet have shrivelled;" NRSV||"...like lions [they maul] my hands and feet." NJPS Translation dispute attributed to the Septuagint.|
|Term||Christian perception||Jewish perception||Messianic perception|
|Teachings of and related to rabbis.||The body of Rabbis in the 1st to 4th centuries C.E. who created the Talmud. Although there are "Rabbis" in modern Judaism, the self-identification is "Judaism" and not "Rabbinic Judaism".||Teachings of and related to rabbis.|
|Christ's sacrifice and intercession for human salvation. Various theologies of redemption within Christian denominations.||A recurrent theme in the Hebrew Bible, especially in respect to land and liberty, underscoring the lasting dignity of individuals and families within the community of Israel. Hebrews could not be kept in debt slavery, nor could family land be sold (rather rented). Guaranteeing the inheritance of future generations. God will bring the ge'ulah through His messiah, which will redeem the Jewish People from exile and oppression. A go'el is the person who is the vehicle of ge'ulah.||Strong understanding of both metaphors.|
|Religious||A state of belief or practice.||A state of practice according to halakhic standards.||A state of belief or practice.|
|The day of rest. 1) Sunday or the Lord's Day (for most Christians). 2) Sabbath in seventh-day churches, Friday sundown to Saturday sundown (for Seventh-day Adventists and some other Sabbatarians).||The day of rest. The Jewish Shabbat, Friday sundown until nightfall on Saturday.||The day of rest. The Jewish Shabbat, Friday sundown until nightfall on Saturday.|
|Apostle. Name given to Simon by Jesus, meaning “Rock.” The New Testament sometimes uses the Aramaic equivalent of Cephas (also meaning “Rock”). See also Primacy of Simon Peter.||Christian Apostle.||Apostle. Name given to Simon by Jesus, meaning “Rock.” The New Testament sometimes uses the Aramaic equivalent of Cephas (also meaning “Rock”). Name is avoided because of historic “Christian” (meaning Gentile Christian) connotations. Shimon or Kepha is substituted.|
|1) Redemption from the penalty of sin (hell). 2) Redemption from the bondage to sin (transformed life)||Not a commonly used term. Since Judaism lacks a concept of Original Sin, there is no use of the term for redemption from the bondage to sin. However, the term is sometimes used in reference to inheritance of the world to come.||1) Redemption from the penalty of sin (hell). 2) Redemption from the bondage to sin (transformed life)|
|The serpent who tempted Adam and Eve and deceives the world into sin, and fallen angel Lucifer also called the Devil. Defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire before the Final Judgment of humanity. Note: Calvinists see Satan as a tool of God, and not as a rival power (compare Jewish view).||1) Any enemy or accuser (in Job, an angel; in the garden, the serpent; in human relations, any enemy), 2) The embodiment of Yetzer HaRa. Note: Unlike the Christian perception of a rebellious angel, Satan does God's work by revealing hidden character flaws in humans so they may be improved upon in order to strengthen desire to avoid evil and embrace goodness.||See Christian perception.|
|1.King Saul (first king of Israel preceding King David)... 2.Saul of Tarsus (the Apostle Paul). Christians will normally associate "Saul" with the king and not with Paul. Christians will not understand who "Sha'ul" is referring to.||Common name for many Jews. Name of the first king of Israel. Jews will not associate this name with Paul.||Theological powerhouse. Rabbinic scholar. Most prolific writer of the New Testament.|
|The return of Jesus to earth from heaven, to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, last judgment, and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth including the Messianic Age. Christians believe Jesus is the prophesied Suffering Servant who is wrongly rejected the first time, thus Christians view the failure to establish Jesus as Messiah as not being his own failure, but of those who refuse to follow him.||Judaism waits for the coming of the Jewish messiah. In the Jewish view there is only one "coming," and a messianic candidate is considered to be a Failed Messiah if he dies before accomplishing his mission. Judaism rejects that Jesus is the "Suffering Servant" and does not view that prophecy as justification for his failed first attempt of being Messiah.||Same as Christian, using the name "Yeshua" instead of "Jesus."|
|Generally unknown, except to students of the Council of Jerusalem, see also Biblical law in Christianity||Teachings of God applicable to all humanity.|
|Generally unknown, biblical term used by Jesus, translated "Hear O Israel ..." ().||Considered the most important prayer in Judaism, and its twice-daily recitation is a mitzvah (religious commandment).|
|See Arianism. The Jewish concept for this would fall under the category of idolatry and is therefore absolutely forbidden to Christians. "There is in the Divine Being but one indivisible essence." "The whole undivided essence of God belongs equally to each of the three persons."||Worship of deities other than God along with God. There are varying views amongst the rabbis as to whether this is considered idolatry for non-Jews. The dominant view is that it is not. However, the unanimous view is that constitutes idolatry for Jews, even if they self-identify as Christian or "Messianic".||Possible source for the “Compound Unity” terminology found in some Messianic descriptions of the Trinity.|
|Both an action and a state. Humankind commit sins because of being born sinful. The measure is against the sinless perfection of Christ. According to lawlessness.", "sin is||Acting in a way that has been forbidden by God, or refusing to act in a way commanded by God. Transgressing against God's commandments. An action, and not a state, and something which may be corrected through repentance.||Both an action and a state. Humankind commit sins because of being born sinful. The measure is against the sinless perfection of the Messiah.|
|Catholic term, rarely used elsewhere. The state of sinfulness that humankind are born into, making the human condition imperfect, prone to sin, and unworthy to be in the presence of a sinless God.||Not a Jewish term. Known as a Christian idea that people are born inherently with sin.||Rarely used term in modern Christianity. The state of sinfulness that humankind are born into, making the human condition imperfect, prone to sin, and unworthy to be in the presence of a sinless God. Messianics equate this with the Yetzer HaRa..|
|Blasphemy of the Holy Spirit is unforgivable ( ).||Any sin (transgression of the torah) is forgivable by God.|
|A biblical title of Jesus that expresses divinity.||A biblical phrase applied to angels or demigods (see Sons of God) or to the ideal King of Israel or to human beings in general. "Yet the term by no means carries the idea of physical descent from, and essential unity with, God the Father."|
Suffering Servant ( )
|The New Covenant between God and Christianity supersedes the Mosaic Covenant between God and Israel.||Cultural imperialism|
|Term||Christian perception||Jewish perception||Messianic perception|
|In missionary work, used instead of the term "Old Testament."||An acronym for Torah—Neviim—Kethuvim, i.e. T—N—K, i.e. TaNaKh.||Tanakh|
|Latin term adopted for the two parts of the Christian Bible, attributed to Tertullian but some propose Marcion||Christian term||Brit/Covenant|
|The Laws of Moses or Pentateuch.||The teaching, both oral and written, received by Moses from God on the Biblical Mount Sinai.|
|One God in three Hypostases. Not a partnership or compound unity. Each “person” (the common, but inaccurate, English term) is fully God.||The Christian belief that God is composed of three parts. See Shituf.||Compound unity; God-class of three persons; God-family of three persons.|
|Generally unknown, but scholars think Jesus wore the Tzitzit, see also Christianity and fringed garments||One of the 613 Mitzvot: Tassels worn on the corner of a garment.|
|Metaphor for Jesus in .||Metaphor for Israel in the Jewish Bible.|
|1) Christ the Logos -- the eternal Word, Principle, of God. Foundation for all existence. Enfleshed in the person of Jesus Christ. 2) The Bible.||Not a normally used term. The Torah—the eternal Word, Principle of God. Foundation for all existence.||1) The Logos—the eternal Word, Principle, of God. Foundation for all existence. Enfleshed in the person of Jesus Christ. 2) The Bible. 3) The Torah|
|Good and evil deeds, performance of Christian religious rituals, or observance of Jewish Torah. Major source of division between Catholics and Protestants regarding salvation: Catholics teach Faith and Works, see Epistle of James and The Sheep and the Goats, while Protestants teach Faith Alone. See also Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, Legalism (theology), Covenantal nomism.||Understood according to Christian usage. Performing mitzvot, or God's commandments, are encouraged to be an expression of an existing relationship and Covenant with God, and not an attempt to obtain one.||A response of faith, to please God. Not a pre-requisite to salvation (being in the covenant).|
|Unfamiliar term. Understood by some Christians as a Hebraic synonym for Jesus.||Word for “salvation” used in many prayers. Also a common name for Jews, and related to “Joshua.” Used without a Christian context, will not be associated with “Jesus”.||Hebrew form of Jesus.|
|Unknown term.||Literally “Evil Inclination.” A part of human nature, which is most commonly understood as a tendency to commit wrongful acts. It is not viewed as a state of being, but as one of two competing tendencies (good and bad). Understood as the animal nature, responsible for desires to eat, procreate, etc. There would be no earthly survival without it, and though Jews are encouraged to rise above it, they are not encouraged to eliminate it. Instead, when a child comes of age (13 for boys and 12 for girls) he is considered to have added the “Yetzer HaTov”; literally “Good Inclination.” As the Yetzer HaRa is responsible for personal survival, the Yetzer HaTov is responsible for helping others to survive. Without the Yetzer HaRa, there would be no sex and no children. Without the Yetzer HaTov there would be no feeding and nurturing of children. Both are essential (and when in harmony, good) aspects of humanity. It cannot be equated with the Christian concept of Original Sin (which has no good aspects). Further, although Original Sin condemns a person to hell without salvation, the Yetzer HaRa does not. The Jew does not need to be saved from his humanity, but instead needs to “grow up” in it.||Original Sin.|
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Amen
- "A word used at the conclusion of a prayer, or in other connections, to express affirmation, approval, or desire. It is derived from the Old Testament Hebrew, and is perhaps the most widely known word in human speech; being familiar to Jews, Christians, and Mohammedans." Jewish Encyclopedia: Amen
- "Apostasy" in the Catholic Encyclopedia
- Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology, pages 545-549
- Kohler, Kaufman and Richard Gottheil. "Apostasy and Apostates from Judaism" in the Jewish Encyclopedia
- "When we discuss the apostatized Jews, we are talking about Converts Out and Jewish Parentage/Background within other Current Religion" from Elazar, Dan. "Apostasy Among American Jews". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs - sociological study based on 1990 Jewish population survey
- The Real Messiah, by Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan, pp 7ff: "Worship of any three-part god by a Jew is nothing less than a form of idolatry."
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, page 677
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Apostles
- Synaxis of the 70 Holy Apostles at goarch.org
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Apostle and Apostleship
- Matthew 10:2 Nestle-Aland 27, apostoloi
- Matthew 10:2 Jewish New Testament Emissaries
- Matthew 10:2 Murdock's Translation of the Peshitta Legates
- 1 John 2:22.
- Revelation 13:11-18.
- Revelation 20:4.
- Revelation 19:20.
- There's a New World Coming, Hal Lindsey
- Antichrist: Islam's Awaited Messiah, Joel Richardson
- O'Reilly talks with Falwell.
- Sarachek, The Doctrine of the Messiah in Medieval Jewish Literature, page 43
- Usage found in Stern's Jewish New Testament, see 1 John 2:18
- McGrath, Alister. Christian Theology, 2nd ed, pp. 341-360. cited by The Biblicist: Glossary of Theological Terms
- "Atonement" in the Catholic Encyclopedia
- Kohler, Kaufman. "Atonement" in the Jewish Encyclopedia
- God graciously accepts the little we are able to achieve as if it were much. Morrison, Chanan. Rabbi Kook on Yom Kippur: Attaining Complete Teshuva.
- Jews for Judaism FAQ: Following the Temple destruction in 70 C.E. did rabbinic Judaism substitute a non-biblical atonement system?
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 768-770
- Historically Jews have disagreed over whether or not Christianity is a form of idolatry. The third century rabbi Abahu believed that the Trinity's idea of "The Son" violated the command to have "no God beside me" (Ex 20:3), i.e. a brother. (Ex. R. 29:5). However, Rabbi Menachem Ha-Me'iri argued that Christians believed in God's existence and so were not idolators and in the 18th century a similar opinion was voiced by Rabbi Yehuda Ashkenazi who argued that "In our era . . . when the gentiles in whose midst we dwell . . . [speak of God], their intention is directed toward the One Who made Heaven and Earth, albeit that they associate another personality with God." (Cf. David Ellenson, "A Jewish View of the Christian God: Some Cautionary and Hopeful Remarks" in Christianity in Jewish Terms, ed. Tikva Frymer-Kensky) - source Cunningham, Philip A. and Jan Katzew. Do Christians and Jews Worship the Same God? Institute for Christian and Jewish Studies, February, 2001
- On September 10, 2003, the Institute for Christian and Jewish Studies published a full page ad in the New York Times titled "Dabru Emet", proclaiming that Christians and Jews believed in the same God. It was signed by a number of leading Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative, and Orthodox Jewish thinkers and scholars, among them Eugene Borowitz (Reform), Tikva Freymer-Kensky (Reconstructionist), Suzanna Heschel (Conservative), Elliot Dorf (Conservative), David Novak (Conservative), and Irving Greenberg (Orthodox) and Barry Freundel (Orthodox). Dabru Emet
- "Throughout the centuries, more than a few Jewish thinkers have argued that the idea of the trinity (the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost) seemed idolatrous. Ultimately, however, the majority of Jewish scholars concluded that although Christianity speaks of a trinity, it does not conceive of the three forces as separate with different and conflicting wills. Rather, the trinity represents three aspects of one God. While Jews are forbidden to hold such a belief, it is not avodah zarah. "Telushkin, Jewish Literacy, page 552
- "In a comment upon Sanhedrin 63b, Rabbi Isaac, a medieval authority, spoke of Christians and Christianity in the following terms:
In taking this stance, Rabbi Isaac offered a distinction that was unknown in Talmudic Judaism -- that although Trinitarianism constituted idolatry for Jews, it did not for Christians."
Although they [Christians] mention the name of Heaven, meaning thereby Jesus of Nazareth, they do not at all events mention a strange deity, and moreover, they mean thereby the Maker of Heaven and Earth too; and despite the fact that they associate the name of Heaven with an alien deity, we do not find that it is forbidden to cause Gentiles to make such an association, ... since such an association (shituf) is not forbidden to the sons of Noah
--Tikva Freymer-Kensky, Christianity in Jewish Terms, pp 73ff
- Ohr.edu "Ask the Rabbi"
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 258-259, also 294-295
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Baptism
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Baptism
- Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament: "The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer. xxxi. 31-34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6-13, x. 16). That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel ( ; comp. 33:25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people."
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, page 687, 6b
- British and Foreign Bible Society, Brit Chadasha (a Hebrew New Testament); also Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 144, 200, 724, 727
- Judaism 101: A Glossary of Basic Jewish terms
- Chabad: Glossary
- Segal, Eliezar. The Ten Sefirot of the Kabbalah - definition accessible by clicking on circle marked "Hesed".
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 580-581
- Executive committee of the editorial board and Kaufman Kohler. "Chosen People" in the Jewish Encyclopedia. See Jews as a chosen people.
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 385-394
- Jacobs, Joseph and Kaufman Kohler. "Christ" in the Jewish Encyclopedia
- Stern, Messianic Jewish Manifesto, page 20
- Kohler, Kaufman. "Christians" in the Jewish Encyclopedia
- Accuracy of Torah Text
- Stern, Jewish New Testament, introduction page xiv
- British Israelism
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Covenant
- Stern, Messianic Jewish Manifesto, pages 50-51
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Archæology of the Cross and Crucifix
- Appian, Civil Wars, 1.120; see also Jewish Encyclopedia: Crucifixion
- Telushkin, Jewish Literacy, page 461
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 40-41
- Stern, Jewish New Testament, every verse that normally uses the word cross, listed in the "reverse glossary" on page 480
- Nicholls, Christian Antisemitism, pages 178, 364
- Matthew Henry Commentary on Mark 11
- Seder torah.org
- Seder aish.com
- Jewish Encyclopedia: New Testament
- Stern, Messianic Jewish Manifesto, pages 92-94
- Matthew 7:12
- Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat 31a
- Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, pages 33-34
- Berkhof, Systematic Theology, pages 426-431
- Schecter, Solomon. Grace at Meals in the Jewish Encyclopedia
- Kohler, Kaufman. Divine Grace in Jewish Encyclopedia
- Stern, Messianic Jewish Manifesto, pages 193-194
- Everyman's Talmud, Abraham Cohen: pages 379-383
- cf. Isaiah 63:10,11; Ps 51: 13, Koren translation of Hebrew Bible: The Holy Scriptures. (Jerusalem:Koren Publishers, 1983).
- Jacobs, Joseph and Ludwig Blau. "The Holy Spirit" in The Jewish Encyclopedia
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Hosanna
- Bauer lexicon
- Artscroll Siddur
- Matt. 6:9-13, Luke 11:2-4
- The NIV Compact Dictionary of the Bible / J.D. Douglas and Merrill C. Tenny, pub."Zondervan Corp." ISBN 0-310-22873-5
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Lord's Prayer
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Paraclete
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Paraclete
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Pentecost ;
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Pentecost
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Pharisees: "In the time of Our Lord such was their power and prestige that they sat and taught in "Moses' seat". This prestige naturally engendered arrogance and conceit, and led to a perversion in many respects of the conservative ideals of which they had been such staunch supporters. In many passages of the Gospels, Christ is quoted as warning the multitude against them in scathing terms."
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Pharisees
- David Novak, Jewish-Christian Dialogue, page 31
- Revelation 12:9
- Isaiah 14:12
- Matthew 4:1
- Revelation 20:10
- Rabbi Hoffmann
- Rabbi Frand
- Thayer's Lexicon definition of Parousia: "In the N.T. especially of the advent, i.e., the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God."
- Suffering Servant ...both Jews and Christians have often failed in the mission of servants...
- Jews for Judaism - Suffering Servant
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Laws, Noachian
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ: "At an early age He must have learned the so called Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4), and the Hallel, or Psalms 113-118 (Hebrew)"
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Shema'
- Berkhof, Systematic Theology, pages 82-83
- Berkhof, Systematic Theology, page 87
- Berkhof, Systematic Theology, page 88
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Original Sin
- Frequently Asked Questions about defining Mortal and Venial Sins in the Catholic Church
- Catholic Encyclopedia: Son of God
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Son of God
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Servant of God
- Jews For Jesus
- The Canon Debate, 2002, McDonald & Sanders editors, chapter 18 by Everett Ferguson quoting Tertullian's De praescriptione haereticorum 30: "Since Marcion separated the New Testament from the Old, he is necessarily subsequent to that which he separated, inasmuch as it was only in his power to separate what was previously united. Having been united previous to its separation, the fact of its subsequent separation proves the subsequence also of the man who effected the separation." Footnote 61 of page 308 adds: "[Wolfram] Kinzig suggests that it was Marcion who usually called his Bible testamentum [Latin for testament]."
- Matthew 14:36
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Jesus: "Jesus wore the Ẓiẓit ( )"; Bauer lexicon, 3rd ed., 1979: "κράσπεδον: 1. edge, border, hem of a garment - But meaning 2 is also possible for these passages, depending on how strictly Jesus followed Mosaic law, and also upon the way in which κράσπεδον was understood by the authors and first readers of the gospels. 2. tassel (ציצת), which the Israelite was obligated to wear on the four corners of his outer garment, according to ; . ... Of the Pharisees ... ."
- Matthew Henry Commentary on John 15
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Grape
- Maimonides Yad Chapter 10, quoted in Jacobs 1973: 159
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