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The Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. Often referred to simply as Romans, it is one of the seven currently undisputed letters of Paul. It is even counted among the four letters accepted as authentic (known in German scholarship as Hauptbriefe) by Ferdinand Christian Baur and the Tübingen School of historical criticism of texts in the 19th century.

The book, according to the Jesuit priest, Joseph Fitzmyer, "overwhelms the reader by the density and sublimity of the topic with which it deals, the gospel of the justification and salvation of Jew and Greek alike by the grace of God through faith in Jesus Christ, revealing the uprightness and love of God the father."[1] N. T. Wright notes that Romans is "neither a systematic theology nor a summary of Paul's lifework, but it is by common consent his masterpiece. It dwarfs most of his other writings, an Alpine peak towering over hills and villages. Not all onlookers have viewed it in the same light or from the same angle, and their snapshots and paintings of it are sometimes remarkably unalike. Not all climbers have taken the same route up its sheer sides, and there is frequent disagreement on the best approach. What nobody doubts is that we are here dealing with a work of massive substance, presenting a formidable intellectual challenge while offering a breathtaking theological and spiritual vision".[2]

Dating of Romans

The letter was most probably written while Paul was in Corinth, and probably while he was staying in the house of Gaius and transcribed by Tertius.[3] There are a number of reasons Corinth is most plausible. Paul was about to travel to Jerusalem on writing the letter, which matches Acts (Acts 20:3) where it is reported that Paul stayed for three months in Greece. This probably implies Corinth as it was the location of Paul's greatest missionary success in Greece.[4] Additionally Phoebe was a deacon of the church in Cenchreae, a port to the east of Corinth, and would have been able to convey the letter to Rome after passing through Corinth and taking a ship from Corinth's west port.[5] Erastus, mentioned in Romans 16:23, also lived in Corinth being the cities commissioner for public works and city treasurer at various times, again indicating that the letter was written in Corinth.[6]

The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the collection for Jerusalem had been assembled and Paul was about to "go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints", that is, at the close of his second visit to Greece, during the winter preceding his last visit to that city (Rom 15:25; cf. Acts 19:21; (Rom 20:2-3, 20:16; 1 Cor 16:1-4). The majority of scholars writing on Romans propose the letter was written in late 55/early 56 or late 56/early 57.[7] Early 58 and early 55 both have some support, while Luedemann argues for a date as early as 51/52 (or 54/55) following on from Knox who proposed 53-54. Luedemann is the only serious challenge to the consensus of mid to late 50s.[8]

Context of Romans in Paul's life

For ten years before writing the letter (approx. 47-57), Paul had travelled round the territories bordering the Aegean Sea evangelising. Churches had been planted in the Roman provinces of Galatia, Macedonia, Achaia and Asia. Paul, considering his task complete, wanted to preach the gospel in Spain, where he would not ‘build upon another man’s foundation’.[9] This allowed him to visit Rome on the way, an ambition of his for a long time. The letter to the Romans, in part, prepares them and gives reasons for his visit.[10]

In addition to Paul's geographic location, his religious views are important. First, Paul was a Jew with a Pharisaic background, integral to his identity. His concern for his people is one part of the dialogue and runs throughout the letter.[11] Second, the other side of the dialogue is Paul's conversion and calling to follow Christ in the early 30s. The resulting evangelistic activity dominated the later years of Paul's life. The letter therefore interweaves the concerns of Paul the Pharisee and the follower of Christ.[12] Third, Paul's missionary work caused opposition from Jews and fellow Jewish Christians. One issue was whether Jewish Christians should continue to carry out laws placed on the covenant people regarding things such as food laws. The disagreement was partly between Paul and the Jerusalem Church, including figures such as Peter and Barnabas. Paul's upcoming visit to Jerusalem to deliver a collection from the gentiles would therefore help maintain the unity of the Christian movement. The letter to the Romans written during this time includes Paul's hopes and fears regarding his visit to Jerusalem and the relationship between Gentiles and more traditional Jewish Christians.[13]

The Church in Rome

The most probable ancient account of the beginning of Christianity in Rome is given by a 4th-century writer known as ‘Ambrosiater’:[14]

“It is established that there were Jews living in Rome in the times of the Apostles, and that those Jews who had believed [in Christ] passed on to the Romans the tradition that they ought to profess Christ but keep the law [Torah] … One ought not to condemn the Romans, but to praise their faith, because without seeing any signs or miracles and without seeing any of the apostles, they nevertheless accepted faith in Christ, although according to a Jewish rite.”[15]

From Adam Clarke:

“The occasion of writing the epistle: … Paul had made acquaintance with all circumstances of the Christians at Rome … and finding that it was … partly of heathens converted to Christianity, and partly of Jews, who had, with many remaining prejudices, believed in Jesus as the true Messiah, and that many contentions arose from the claims of the Gentiles to equal privileges with the Jews, and from absolute refusal of the Jews to admit these claims, unless the Gentile converts become circumcised; he wrote this epistle to adjust and settle these differences.”[16]

At this time, the Jews made up a substantial number in Rome, and their synagogues, frequented by many, enabled the Gentiles to become acquainted with the story of Jesus of Nazareth. Consequently, a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. According to Irenaeus, one of the earliest Church Fathers, the church at Rome was founded directly by the apostles Peter and Paul.[17] However, many modern scholars disagree with Irenaeus, holding that while little is known of the circumstances of the church's founding, it was not founded by Paul.[18]

Many of the brethren went out to meet Paul on his approach to Rome. There is evidence that Christians were then in Rome in considerable numbers and probably had more than one place of meeting (Rom 16:14-15).

Jews were expelled from Rome because of Christian disturbances around AD 49 by the Edict of Claudius.[19] The conflict developed because Jewish Christians and Jews argued with one another over the validity of Jesus as the Messiah. Both Jews and Jewish Christians were expelled as a result of their infighting.[20] The majority of people left in the Christian church at Rome would have been Gentile Christians. These gentile churches developed along a different trajectory from the Christian circles that grew out of Jewish synagogues.[20]

Claudius died around the year AD 54, and his successor, Emperor Nero, allowed the Jews back into Rome. Gentile Christians may have developed a dislike of or looked down on Jews (see also Antisemitism), because they theologically rationalized that Jews were no longer God's people.[21] Fitzmyer argues that with the return of the Jews to Rome in 54 new conflict arose between the Gentile Christians and the Jewish Christians who had formerly been expelled.[22]

The Roman church would have to accept that the gospel was for the "Jew first and also to the Greek" (see Romans 1:16).


While scholars are often able to determine aspects of the context of NT writers from their letters, it is much more difficult to understand Paul's letter to the Romans. Scholars often have difficulty assessing whether Romans is a letter or an epistle:

"A letter is something non-literary, a means of communication between persons who are separated from each other. Confidential and personal in nature, it is intended only for the person or persons to whom it is addressed, and not at all for the public or any kind of publicity...An Epistle is an artistic literary form, just like the dialogue, the oration, or the drama. It has nothing in common with the letter except its form: apart from that one might venture the paradox that the epistle is the opposite of a real letter. The contents of the epistle are intended for publicity--they aim at interesting 'the public.'"[23]

Joseph Fitzmyer argues, from evidence put forth by Stirewalt, that the style of Romans is an "essay-letter."[24] Philip Melanchthon, a writer during the Reformation, suggested that Romans was caput et summa universae doctrinae christianae ("a summary of all Christian doctrine").[25] While some scholars attempt to suggest, like Melanchthon, that it is a type of theological treatise, this view largely ignores chapters 14 and 15 of Romans. There are also many "noteworthy elements" missing from Romans that are included in other areas of the Pauline corpus.[26] The breakdown of Romans as a treatise began with F.C. Baur in 1836 when he suggested "this letter had to be interpreted according to the historical circumstances in which Paul wrote it."[25]

Paul sometimes uses a style of writing common in his time called a "diatribe". He appears to be responding to a "heckler", and the letter is structured as a series of arguments. In the flow of the letter, Paul shifts his arguments, sometimes addressing the Jewish members of the church, sometimes the Gentile membership and sometimes the church as a whole.

Purposes of writing

The main purpose of the epistle to the Romans is given by Paul in Romans 1:1, where he reveals that he is set apart by God for the purpose of preaching the Gospel.[27] He wishes to impart to the Roman readers a gift of encouragement and assurance in all that God has freely given them (see Romans 1:11-12; 1 Corinthians 2:12).

The purposes of the apostle in dictating this letter to his Amanuensis Tertius (16:22) is also articulated in the second half of chapter 15:

  1. Paul asks for prayers for his upcoming journey to Jerusalem; he hopes that the offering collected from the Gentile churches will be accepted there.
  2. Paul is planning to travel to Rome from Jerusalem and spend some time there before moving on to Spain; he hopes the Roman church will support his mission to Spain.
  3. Since Paul has never been to Rome, he outlines his gospel so that his teaching will not be confused by that of "false teachers".
  4. Paul is aware that there is some conflict between Gentile and Jewish Christians in the Roman church, and he addressed those concerns (chapters thirteen and the first half of fourteen). While the Roman church was presumably founded by Jewish Christians, the exile of Jews from Rome in AD 49 by Claudius resulted in Gentile Christians taking leadership positions.


The main theme of the letter is the salvation offered through the Gospel of Jesus Christ (1:16-17). Paul argues that all humanity is guilty and accountable to God for sin and that it is only through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ that humanity can attain salvation. Therefore, God is both just and the one who justifies. In response to God's free, sovereign and graceful action of salvation, humanity can be justified by faith. Paul uses the example of Abraham to demonstrate that it is by faith that mankind can be seen as righteous before God.


This essay-letter composed by Paul was written to a specific audience at a specific time; to understand it, the situations of both Paul and the recipients must be understood.

Introduction (Rom 1:1-15)

The introduction (Rom 1:1-16) provides some general notes about Paul. He introduces his apostleship here and introductory notes about the gospel he wishes to preach to the church at Rome. Jesus' human line stems from David (Rom 1:3). Paul, however, does not limit his ministry to Jews. Paul's goal is that the gentiles would also hear the gospel (1:5). He commends the Romans for their faith (1:8). The word for faith in Greek is "pistis." Paul also speaks of the past obstacles that have blocked his coming to Rome earlier (1:11-13).

Unashamed (Rom 1:16-17)

Paul's announcement that he is not "ashamed" (evpaiscu, nomai) of his gospel because it holds power (dunamis). These two verses form a backdrop for the rest of the book. First, we note that Paul is unashamed of his love for this gospel that he preaches about Jesus Christ. He also notes that he is speaking to the "Jew first" (1:16). There is signifiance to this, but much of it is scholarly conjecture. We are hardpressed to find an answer to such a question without knowing more about the audience in question. Wayne Brindle argues, based on Paul's former writings against the Judaizers in Galatians and 2 Corinthians, that rumors had probably spread about Paul totally negating the Jewish existence in a Christian world. Paul may have used the "Jew first" mentality to counter such a view.[28]

The Judgment of God (Rom 1:18-32)

Paul now begins into the main thrust of his letter. He begins by suggesting that some among them have taken up ungodliness and wickedness for which there will be wrath from God (1:18). These people have taken God's invisible image and made him into an idol. Paul draws heavily here from the Wisdom of Solomon.[29] He condemns unnatural sexual behavior and warns that such behavior will result in a depraved body and mind (1:26 - 27) and says that people who do such things (including murder and wickedness (1:29)) are worthy of death (1:32). Paul may undercut the idol worship system for the same reason that he undercuts the Jewish law later in the gospel--to bring the people together under Christ.

Paul's Judgment of Hypocrites (Rom 2:1-4)

On the traditional Protestant interpretation, Paul here calls out Jews who are condemning others for not following the law when they themselves are also not following the law. Stanley Stowers, however, has argued on rhetorical grounds that Paul is in these verses not addressing a Jew at all but rather an easily recognizable caricature of the typical boastful person (ὁ ἀλαζων). Stowers writes, "There is absolutely no justification for reading 2:1-5 as Paul's attack on 'the hypocrisy of the Jew.' No one in the first century would have identified ho alazon with Judaism. That popular interpretation depends upon anachronistically reading later Christian characterizations of Jews as 'hypocritical Pharisees'" (Stowers, A Rereading of Romans [Yale Press, 1994], p.101).

Assurance of salvation (Rom 2:5-8, 9-11)

In chapters five through eight, Paul argues that believers can be assured of their hope in salvation, having been freed from the bondage of sin. Paul teaches that, through faith (3:28; 4:3), the faithful have been joined with Jesus (5:1) and freed from sin (6:1–2, 6:18). Believers should celebrate in the assurance of salvation (12:12). This promise is open to everyone since everyone has sinned (3:23) save the one who paid for all of them (3:24).

In chapters nine through eleven, Paul addresses the faithfulness of God to Israel, where he says that God has been faithful to His promise. Paul hopes that all of Israel will come to realize the truth (9:1–5) since he himself was also an Israelite (11:1) and had in the past been a persecutor of Christ. These verses could also be saying that, even though Jews do not believe that Jesus is the Messiah, since they still believe in God, they will be saved. In Romans 9–11 Paul, talks about how the nation of Israel has been cast away, and the conditions under which Israel will be God's chosen nation again: when the Body of Christ (believers in Christ's payment for sin) stops being faithful (11:19–22).

Transformation of believers

In Romans 7:1, Paul says that humans are under the law while we live: "Know ye not . . . that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth?" However, Jesus' death on the cross makes believers dead to the law (7:4, "Wherefore, my brethren, ye are also become dead to the law by the body of Christ").

From chapter 12 through the first part of chapter 15, Paul outlines how the Gospel transforms believers and the behaviour that results from such a transformation. He goes on to describe how believers should live: not under the law, but under the grace of God. If believers live in obedience to God, study the scriptures, (and share them with others) and love everybody, believers are not going to need to sin. As Paul says in Romans 13:10, "love (ἀγάπη) worketh no ill to his neighbor: therefore love is the fulfilling of law".

Concluding verses

The concluding verses contain a description of his travel plans and personal greetings salutations. One-third of the twenty-one Christians identified in the greetings are women, some of whom played an important role in the early church at Rome.

Protestant interpretation

Martin Luther described Paul's letter to the Romans as the "most important piece in the New Testament. It is purest Gospel. It is well worth a Christian's while not only to memorize it word for word but also to occupy himself with it daily, as though it were the daily bread of the soul".[30]

The Romans Road refers to a set of scriptures from Romans that Christian evangelists use to present a clear and simple case for personal salvation for each person.

Romans has been at the forefront of several major movements in Protestantism. Martin Luther's lectures on Romans in 1515–1516 probably coincided with the development of his criticism of Roman Catholicism which led to the 95 Theses of 1517. In 1738, while reading Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans, John Wesley famously felt his heart "strangely warmed", a conversion experience which is often seen as the beginning of Methodism. In 1919 Karl Barth's commentary on Romans, The Epistle to the Romans, was the publication which is widely seen as the beginning of neo-orthodoxy.


It is often the starting point of those who argue against the Protestant understanding of Romans, specifically in regard to the doctrine of sola fide, to point out that the same apostle who wrote Romans is also quoted in Philippians as saying "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling" (Phil 2:12).[31]

A critique of the traditional Protestant view of Paul's salvation theology was given by Lutheran scholar and bishop Krister Stendahl in his 1976 book Paul Among Jews and Gentiles. The following is an excerpt:

The main lines of Pauline interpretation — and hence both conscious and unconscious reading and quoting of Paul by scholars and lay people alike — have for many centuries been out of touch with one of the most basic of the questions and concerns that shaped Paul's thinking in the first place: the relation between Jews and Gentiles.
Especially in the Protestant tradition — and particularly among Lutherans — it is Paul's epistle to the Romans which holds a position of honor, supplying patterns of thought...
A doctrine of justification by faith was hammered out by Paul for the very specific and limited purpose of defending the rights of Gentile converts to be full and genuine heirs to the promises of God to Israel...
We tend to read him as if his question was: On what grounds, on what terms, are we to be saved? ... But Paul was chiefly concerned about the relation between Jews and Gentiles — and in the development of this concern he used as one of his arguments the idea of justification by faith...
If we read Paul's answer to the question of how Gentiles become heirs to God's promises to Israel as if he were responding to Luther's pangs of conscience, it becomes obvious that we are taking the Pauline answer out of its original context...
Paul's primary focus on Jews and Gentiles was lost in the history of interpretation... Justification no longer "justified" the status of Gentile Christians as honorary Jews, but became the timeless answer to the plights and pains of the introspective conscience of the West.[32]

== Catholic interpretation ==

Catholics accept the necessity of faith for salvation but point to Romans 2:5–11 for the necessity of living a virtuous life as well:[33]

Who [God] will render to every man according to his deeds: To them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory and honour and immortality, eternal life: But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath, Tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile; But glory, honour, and peace, to every man that worketh good, to the Jew first, and also to the Gentile: For there is no respect of persons with God.


To argue their claim that sincere profession of Christ takes precedence over good works in God's eyes, Protestants hold up Romans 4:2–5 (emphasis added):

"For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God. For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace, but of debt. But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted unto him for righteousness".

They also point out that in Romans 2, Paul says that God will reward those who follow the law (as opposed to antinomianism) and then goes on to say that no one follows the law perfectly (see also Sermon on the Mount: Interpretation). Romans 2:21–25:

Thou therefore which teachest another, teachest thou not thyself? thou that preachest a man should not steal, dost thou steal? Thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege? Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God? For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written. For circumcision verily profiteth, if thou keep the law: but if thou be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made uncircumcision.


  1. Fitzmyer, xiii
  2. Leander E. Keck and others, eds., The New Interpreter's Bible: A Commentary in Twelve Volumes (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 2002) 395
  3. Dunn, xliv; Stuhlmacher, 5; Romans 16:22
  4. Dunn, xliv
  5. Dunn xliv
  6. Bruce, 280-281; Dunn, xliv
  7. Bruce, 12; Dunn, xliii
  8. Dunn, xliii-xliv
  9. Rom 15:20; Bruce, 11-12
  10. Bruce, 11-12
  11. Dunn, xxix-xli
  12. Dunn, xli-xlii
  13. Dunn, xlii-xliii
  14. TIB IX 1955 p. 367
  15. Ambrosii Works iii 373.
  16. A.C. 1831 VI p. 3
  17. Irenaeus, Against Heresies, Book III,3,2
  18. "The Expositor's Bible Commentary", (Ed. F.E.Gaebelein, Zondervan, 1976-92) Commentary on Romans (Introduction)
  19. Acts 18:2; Suetonius' Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius XXV.4
  20. 20.0 20.1 Fitzmyer, 77
  21. Leander E. Keck, The New Interpreter's Bible, 407
  22. Fitzmyer, 77 also argues that this may be what Paul is referring to when he talks about the "strong" and the "weak" in Romans 15; this theory was originally put forth by W. Marxsen, Introduction to the New Testament: An Approach to its problems (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968) but is critiqued and modified by Fitzmyer. Fitzmyer's main contention is that Paul seems to be purposefully vague. Paul could have been more specific if he wanted to address this problem specifically.
  23. A. Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, 2nd ed (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1927), 218, 220
  24. Fitzmyer, 69
  25. 25.0 25.1 Fitzmyer, 74
  26. Fitzmyer, 74, who notes that the Ekklesia, Eucharist and eschatology (espeically the parousia) are not present in Romans
  27. For a discussion of the current scholarly viewpoints on the purpose of Romans, along with a bibliography, see Dictionary of Paul and His Letters, s.v. "Romans, Letter to the"
  28. W.A. Brindle, "To The Jew First: Rhetoric, Strategy, History, or Theology?" Bibliotheca Sacra 159 (2002): 221
  29. for all of these comparisons see Ben Witherington's commentary on Romans, p. 63 which is available on a limited preview basis from google books.
  30. Martin Luther's Preface to the Letter of St. Paul to the Romans cf. Luther's comments in his treatise on The Adoration of the Sacrament (1523) in which he refers to the words of institution of the Eucharist as being "the sum and substance of the whole gospel". Luther's Works, American Edition, St. Louis and Philadelphia: Concordia Publishing House and Fortress (Muhlenberg) Press, vol. 36 (Word and Sacrament II (1959)) , [1], p.277.
  31. Aren’t We Saved by Faith Alone? (This Rock: March 2003)
  32. Krister Stendahl, Paul Among Jews and Gentiles, Fortress Press, 1976, pp. 1-3, 5.
  33. For an authoritative discussion of the Catholic viewpoint, see Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. "Epistle to the Romans"