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Congregationalist polity, often known as congregationalism, is a system of church governance in which every local church congregation is independent, ecclesiastically sovereign, or "autonomous." Among those major Protestant Christian traditions that employ congregationalism are those Congregational Churches known by the "Congregationalist" name that descended from the Anglo-American Puritan movement of the 17th century, the Baptist churches, and most of the groups brought about by the Anabaptist movement in Germany that immigrated to the U.S. in the late 18th century. More recent generations have witnessed also a growing number of non-denominational churches, which are most often congregationalist in their governance. In Christianity, congregationalism is distinguished most clearly from episcopal polity, which is governance by a hierarchy of bishops. But it is also distinct from presbyterian polity, in which higher assemblies of congregational representatives can exercise considerable authority over individual congregations.

Congregationalism is not limited only to organization of Christian congregations; the principles of congregationalism have been inherited by the Unitarian Universalist Association. Jewish synagogues and most Islamic mosques in the U.S. operate under congregational government as well, with no hierarchies.

Theological foundations of congregationalism

Before embarking on the theological foundations of congregationalism, it is also noteworthy that the earmarks of Congregationalism can be traced back to the Pilgrim societies of the United States in the early 1600s. Congregationalism expressed the viewpoint that (1) every local church is a full realization in miniature of the entire Church of Jesus Christ; and (2) the Church, while on earth, besides the local church, can only be invisible and ideal. While other theories may insist on the truth of the former, the latter precept of congregationalism gives the entire theory a unique character among plans of church government. There is no other reference than the local congregation for the "visible church" in Congregationalism. And yet, the connection of all Christians is also asserted, albeit in a way that defenders of this view usually decline, often intentionally, to elaborate more clearly or consistently. This first, foundational principle by which congregationalism is guided results in confining it to operate with the consent of each gathering of believers.

Although "congregational rule" may seem to suggest that pure democracy reigns in congregational churches, this is seldom the case. It is granted, with few exceptions (namely in some Anabaptist churches), that God has given the government of the Church into the hands of an ordained ministry. What makes congregationalism unique is its system of checks and balances, which constrains the authority of the minister, the lay officers, and the members.

Most importantly, the boundaries of the powers of the ministers and church officers are set by clear and constant reminders of the freedoms guaranteed by the Gospel to the laity, collectively and individually. With that freedom comes the responsibility upon each member to govern himself or herself under Christ. This requires lay people to exercise great charity and patience in debating issues with one another and to seek the glory and service of God as the foremost consideration in all of their decisions.

The authority of all of the people, including the officers, is limited in the local congregation by a definition of union, or a covenant, by which the terms of their cooperation together are spelled out and agreed to. This might be something as minimal as a charter specifying a handful of doctrines and behavioral expectations, or even a statement only guaranteeing specific freedoms. Or, it may be a constitution describing a comprehensive doctrinal system and specifying terms under which the local church is connected to other local churches, to which participating congregations give their assent. In congregationalism, rather uniquely, the church is understood to be a truly voluntary association.

Finally, the congregational theory strictly forbids ministers from ruling their local churches by themselves. Not only does the minister serve by the approval of the congregation, but committees further constrain the pastor from exercising power without consent by either the particular committee, or the entire congregation. It is a contradiction of the congregational principle if a minister makes decisions concerning the congregation without the vote of these other officers.

The other officers may be called "deacons", "elders" or "session" (borrowing Presbyterian terminology), or even "vestry" (borrowing the Anglican term) — it is not their label that is important to the theory, but rather their lay status and their equal vote, together with the pastor, in deciding the issues of the church. While other forms of church government are more likely to define "tyranny" as "the imposition of unjust rule", a congregationally-governed church would more likely define tyranny as "transgression of liberty" or equivalently, "rule by one man". To a congregationalist, no abuse of authority is worse than the concentration of all decisive power in the hands of one ruling body, or one person.

Following this sentiment, congregationalism has evolved over time to include even more participation of the congregation, more kinds of lay committees to whom various tasks are apportioned, and more decisions subject to the vote of the entire membership.

Ministry and ordination in the Congregational Christian Churches/UCC


(The Ninety-Five Theses)

The Reformation

Pre-Reformation movements

Hussites  • Lollards  • Waldensians

Reformation era movements

Anabaptism • Anglicanism • Calvinism • Counter-Reformation • Lutheranism • Polish Brethren • Remonstrants

The understanding of ministry in the Congregational Christian Churches (pre-1957) generally followed a "priesthood of all believers" model in the sense that all Christians have ministry roles within the church, but that God calls certain people to be ordained ministers. The process of calling and ordaining ministers was managed by the congregation through an established system of process, but the ordination ceremony usually involved more than just the congregation calling the pastor. Typically, neighboring congregational churches within, originally, a vicinage council or, since the early 20th century, an association were invited to lay hands on the confirmed candidate, in a ceremony of ordination.[1]

Since the formation of the United Church of Christ in 1957, most of the former CC churches largely follow a more centralized system coordinated by their associations and conferences to help them procure pastors or send candidates into the ministry from their churches, one largely designed to ensure a professional, credentialed pool of clergy. Meanwhile, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, two bodies formed in reaction to the dominant liberalism (in the first instance, political; the second, theological) of the majority of Congregationalists, have retained something closer to the older, more autonomous practices where associations do not supervise clergy.

Some other mainline groups governed by congregational polity, such as the American Baptist Churches USA, the Alliance of Baptists, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), employ a system of clergy placement and supervision similar to that of the UCC.

Congregationalism as a theory of union

It may seem ironic given its adamant emphasis on independence, but one of the most notable characteristics of New England (or British)-heritage Congregationalism has been its consistent leadership role in the formation of "unions" with other churches. Such sentiments especially grew strong in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when ecumenism evolved out of a liberal, non-sectarian perspective on relations to other Christian groups that accompanied the relaxation of Calvinist stringencies held by earlier generations. The congregationalist theory of independence within a union has been a cornerstone of most ecumenical movements since the 18th century.

An older, competing, but somewhat related theory, is sometimes called nationalism (in the Reformed churches tradition), or autocephaly (in the Eastern Orthodox Church tradition). Between these latter two there are further differences. In both nationalism and autocephaly, one unifying doctrine is given local expression, according to differences in language and customs. Autocephaly is strictly episcopal, and assures the self-government of distinct patriarchates within a structure of common doctrine, comparable practices, with some degree of mutual accountability through which they remain in communion with one another. In nationalism (in recent times, more accurately called "culturalism"), there is no institutional accountability to churches with separate general assemblies, although churches with separate histories typically form voluntary confederations with one another. Congregationalism, in contrast, guarantees a completely independent government for all of the uniting parties, down to the level of every local congregation.

The congregationalist principles of complete autonomy and strictly voluntary union produces a practically indescribable diversity of beliefs within the congregational unions. The UCC is the result of a union constructed according to congregationalist theory between the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches. These uniting congregations were themselves the result of several previous unions. The General Council of Congregational Christian Churches was formed from a merger between the National Council of Congregational Churches and the General Convention of the Christian Church, also known as Christian Churches or Christian Connection (not to be confused with, although partially related to, the Disciples of Christ). The Evangelical and Reformed Church was the result of a partial union of the Reformed Church in the United States and the Evangelical Synod of North America (a union of Lutherans and Reformed). The UCC is by far the most diverse of the Reformed churches in the U.S. In the United Kingdom, the United Reformed Church was formed in 1972 by the merger of the Presbyterian and the Congregational churches, on presbyterian principles of union but within a continuing congregational regard for local diversity.

Diversity and theology

Part of a series of articles on
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Historical Background
Christianity  · Anabaptists
General · Strict · Reformed

Doctrinal distinctives
Sola scriptura
Priesthood of all believers
Individual soul liberty
Separation of church and state

Pivotal figures
John Smyth · Thomas Helwys · Roger Williams · John Bunyan · Shubal Stearns · Andrew Fuller · Charles Haddon Spurgeon

Baptist Associations and Conventions

Baptism logo.jpg Baptist Portal

Churches such as the Unitarian Universalists and the United Church of Christ are often reported by the press as being politically liberal. However, conservatives and more orthodox believers can also be found in large numbers in other congregations (in the UCC; seldom in the UUA). In short, while the idea of congregationalism itself is tolerant of differences between congregations, this liberal theory in principle assures a place for both conservatives and liberals, as far as their uniting covenants allow. At least in principle, this kind of diversity may be regarded as both inevitable and tolerable under a congregational theory of union.

In theory, the UCC is tolerant of all types of theology. Paragraph 18 of the UCC constitution is a provision that was specifically requested by the Congregational Christian Churches, and it declares,

"The autonomy of the Local Church is inherent and modifiable only by its own action. Nothing in this Constitution and the Bylaws of the United Church of Christ shall destroy or limit the right of each Local Church to continue to operate in the way customary to it; nor shall be construed as giving to the General Synod, or to any Conference or Association now, or at any future time, the power to abridge or impair the autonomy of any Local Church in the management of its own affairs, which affairs include, but are not limited to, the right to retain or adopt its own methods of organization, worship and education; to retain or secure its own charter and name; to adopt its own constitution and bylaws; to formulate its own covenants and confessions of faith; to admit members in its own way and to provide for their discipline or dismissal; to call or dismiss its pastor or pastors by such procedure as it shall determine; to acquire, own, manage and dispose of property and funds; to control its own benevolences; and to withdraw by its own decision from the United Church of Christ at any time without forfeiture of ownership or control of any real or personal property owned by it.[2]

In practice, some UCC ministers and congregations embracing conservative and/or evangelical theology have criticized the denominational leaders for representing a more "progressive" national identity through the Justice and Witness Ministries, the Open and Affirming program of the UCC Coalition for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Concerns (a lobbying group), and the "God is still Speaking" denominational advertising/identity campaign. As a result of their perceptions of the UCC, some congregations have sought refuge in other Congregationalist denominations such as the NACCC, the CCCC, the Evangelical Association of Reformed and Congregational Christian Churches, or have opted to simply operate independently.

Baptist churches/Churches of Christ

Contrary to the congregationalism to which the above-mentioned churches adhere, congregationalism obtains in two large fundamentalist groups mainly found in the Southern U.S. A large number of Baptist churches and the Churches of Christ are two traditions whose churches stand autonomously from each other.

These churches have developed ideas about independence of congregational authority that are quite different from the UCC and its New England-heritage predecessors, usually deriving from intense convictions about supposed patterns of government among the early churches described in the New Testament. Both traditions were also shaped culturally by the agrarian traditions in the rural South from the late 19th through the middle 20th centuries, the poverty of which largely did not permit much of the population to acquire significant formal education. These conditions enabled preachers to disseminate highly sectarian viewpoints such as the Landmarkist Baptist movement and doctrinare Restorationism without significant opposition on the part of potential converts.

Independent Baptist churches and Churches of Christ typically do not condone the theories of unity and "merger" outlined above, as such consolidation constitutes a threat to the sovereignty of individual congregations. Interdenominational unity is generally eschewed; calls for tolerance are almost invariably viewed as attempts to weaken their distinctive doctrines and separatist ecclesiologies. Church government beyond the level of the congregation does not exist. Even in small towns or in rural areas, most independent Baptist and Churches of Christ preachers do not meet on a regular basis. Preachers are not formally ordained in the Churches of Christ, because of the belief that performance of such a rite would constitute a transcongregational authority. Practices likely vary on this point among independent Baptists, according to local customs.

The CoC base these convictions upon their general consensus that the New Testament practice of epistle-writing had some practical, doctrinal, or interpretational authority because the letters were written by apostles and/or those directly inspired by God, but do not retain similar authority in modern times. The practice of writing rather than meeting is what gave rise to a colloquial maxim that "Churches of Christ don't have Bishops; they have editors instead." These editors (usually elders) publish such magazines as the Gospel Advocate and the Herald of Truth. Other than these editors and the occasional lectureship or fellowship gathering (in which preachers from many churches come together to speak publicly on pressing issues), the only ways in which Churches of Christ generally coordinate is in disaster relief.

Such rigorous independence even extends to some CoC-founded colleges, such as Florida College, which does not accept donations from churches for fear of undue influence and because the college's leaders hold to a policy that strict adherence to certain Biblical passages does not permit churches to donate money to education. However, most mainstream universities and colleges affiliated with the Church of Christ, such as Pepperdine, Harding University, and Lipscomb University, do accept money from churches; the schools, in turn, generally reflect the peculiar doctrinal platforms of those contributing churches. The Churches of Christ have steadfastly refused to organize along national or regional lines.

As for Baptists, a variety of parachurch agencies and evangelical educational institutions may be supported generously or not at all, depending entirely upon the local congregation's customs and predilections. Usually doctrinal conformity is held as a first consideration when a church makes a decision to grant or decline financial contributions to such agencies, which are legally external and separate from the congregations they serve. These practices also find currency among non-denominational fundamentalist or charismatic fellowships, many of which derive from Baptist origins, culturally if not theologically.

Most Southern Baptist congregations and African-American Baptist churches, by contrast, generally relate more closely to external groups such as mission agencies and educational institutions than do those of independent persuastion. However, they adhere to a very similar ecclesiology, refusing to permit outside control or oversight of local affairs.

See also


Grudem, Wayne. Electronic Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Whitefish, MT, Bits & Bytes Computer Resources, 2000.
Horton, Stanley M., ed. Systematic Theology, A Pentecostal Perspective, rev. Springfield, MO: Logion Press, 1994.
Klaus, Byron D. Systematic Theology. Ed. Stanley M. Horton. Springfield, MI: Logion P, 2007. 567-96
Dusing, Michael L. Systematic Theology. Ed. Stanley M. Horton. Springfield, MI: Logion P, 2007. 525-66

External links