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Modernism (Roman Catholicism) is a theological movement in the Roman Catholic Church that arose in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Modernist theology generally advocated ideas from both Protestantism (an emphasis on the Bible as opposed to tradition) and the Enlightenment's secular philosophy. It was condemned by Saint Pope Pius X in his encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis.

Some Anglicans use the term as well. There is also a more distinct religious controversy among Presbyterians termed the Fundamentalist-Modernist Controversy.

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