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The Books of the Bible are listed differently in the canons of Judaism and the Catholic, Protestant, Greek Orthodox, Slavonic Orthodox, Georgian, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac and Ethiopian churches, although there is substantial overlap. A table comparing the canons of some of these traditions appears below, comparing the Jewish Bible with the Christian Old Testament and New Testament. For a detailed discussion of the differences, see "Biblical canon".

The Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches may have minor differences in their lists of accepted books. The list given here for these churches is the most inclusive: if at least one Eastern church accepts the book it is included here.

Tanakh, Old Testament, or Hebrew Bible

A table cell with an asterisk (*) indicates that a book is present but in a different order. Empty cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon.

Old Testament and Tanakh
Jewish, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox
Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox
Russian and Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox

The disputed books are often called the Biblical apocrypha, a term that is sometimes used specifically (and possibly pejoratively in English) to describe the books in the Catholic and Orthodox canons that are absent from the Jewish Masoretic Text (also called the Tanakh or Miqra) and most modern Protestant Bibles. Catholic Christians, following the Canon of Trent, describe these books as deuterocanonical, meaning of "the second canon," while Greek Orthodox Christians, following the Synod of Jerusalem (1672), use the traditional name of anagignoskomena, meaning "that which is to be read." They are present in a few historic Protestant versions: the German Luther Bible included such books, as did the English 1611 King James Version.[1]

Note that this table uses current spellings of the NAB. Spellings of the 1609-1610 Douay-Rheims Bible describing the Catholic biblical canon were traslated different but the same books. In the spirit of ecumenism more recent Catholic translations, such as the 1970 are similar or identical spellings (e.g. 1 Chronicles) as Protestant Bibles in those books which are jointly considered canonical, i.e. the protocanonicals.

(Jewish Bible)
Protestant Old Testament Catholic Old Testament Eastern Orthodox Old Testament Original Language
Torah or Instruction
Pentateuch or Five Books
Bereishit (In the beginning) Genesis Genesis Genesis Hebrew
Shemot (Names) Exodus Exodus Exodus Hebrew
Vayikra (And He called) Leviticus Leviticus Leviticus Hebrew
Bamidbar (In the wilderness) Numbers Numbers Numbers Hebrew
Devarim (Words) Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Deuteronomy Hebrew
Nevi'im or Prophets
Historical books
Joshua Joshua Joshua Joshua Hebrew
Judges Judges Judges Judges Hebrew
see below Ruth Ruth Ruth Hebrew
Samuel 1 Samuel 1 Samuel 1 Samuel (1 Kingdoms)[2] Hebrew
2 Samuel 2 Samuel 2 Samuel (2 Kingdoms)[2] Hebrew
Kings 1 Kings 1 Kings 1 Kings (3 Kingdoms)[2] Hebrew
2 Kings 2 Kings 2 Kings (4 Kingdoms)[2] Hebrew
see below
1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles 1 Chronicles Hebrew
2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Hebrew
1 Esdras Greek (or Aramaic?)
Ezra (includes Nehemiah)
see below
Ezra Ezra Ezra (2 Esdras)[2] [3] Hebrew(+Aramaic)
Nehemiah Nehemiah Nehemiah (2 Esdras)[2] [3] Hebrew
Tobit Tobit Aramaic
Judith Judith Hebrew
see below Esther Esther[4] Esther[4] Hebrew
1 Machabees[5] 1 Maccabees Hebrew or Aramaic?
2 Machabees[5] 2 Maccabees Greek
3 Maccabees Greek
4 Maccabees Greek
Wisdom books
see below Job Job Job Hebrew
see below Psalms Psalms Psalms[6] Hebrew
Odes[7] Hebrew(+Greek)
see below Proverbs Proverbs Proverbs Hebrew
see below Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Ecclesiastes Hebrew
see below Song of Solomon Song of Songs Song of Solomon Hebrew
Wisdom Wisdom Greek
Sirach Sirach Hebrew, then translated into Greek
Major prophets
Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Isaiah Hebrew
Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Jeremiah Hebrew(+Aramaic)
see below Lamentations Lamentations Lamentations Hebrew
Baruch[8] Baruch[8] Hebrew [9]
Letter of Jeremiah[10] Greek (or Hebrew?)[11]
Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Ezekiel Hebrew
see below Daniel Daniel[12] Daniel[12] Hebrew+Aramaic
Minor prophets
Trei Asar or Twelve Hosea Hosea Hosea Hebrew
Joel Joel Joel Hebrew
Amos Amos Amos Hebrew
Obadiah Obadiah Obadiah Hebrew
Jonah Jonah Jonah Hebrew
Micah Micah Micah Hebrew
Nahum Nahum Nahum Hebrew
Habakkuk Habakkuk Habakkuk Hebrew
Zephaniah Zephaniah Zephaniah Hebrew
Haggai Haggai Haggai Hebrew
Zechariah Zacharias Zechariah Hebrew
Malachi Malachi Malachi Hebrew
Ketuvim or Writings[13]
Psalms Hebrew
Proverbs Hebrew
Job Hebrew
Song of Songs Hebrew
Ruth Hebrew
Lamentations Hebrew
Ecclesiastes Hebrew
Esther Hebrew
Daniel Hebrew+Aramaic
Ezra (includes Nehemiah) Hebrew(+Aramaic)
Chronicles Hebrew
see above[5] 1 Maccabees Hebrew or Aramaic?
see above[5] 2 Maccabees Greek

New Testament

In general, among Christian denominations, the New Testament Canon is an agreed-upon list of 27 books, although book order can vary.

Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox Lutheran Bible Ethiopian Bible Original Language
Canonical Gospels
Matthew Matthew Matthew Greek (or perhaps Aramaic or Hebrew)[14]
Mark Mark Mark Greek
Luke Luke Luke Greek
John John John Greek
Apostolic History
Acts Acts Acts Greek
Pauline Epistles
Romans Romans Romans Greek
1 Corinthians 1 Corinthians 1 Corinthians Greek
2 Corinthians 2 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Greek
Galatians Galatians Galatians Greek
Ephesians Ephesians Ephesians Greek
Philippians Philippians Philippians Greek
Colossians Colossians Colossians Greek
1 Thessalonians 1 Thessalonians 1 Thessalonians Greek
2 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians Greek
1 Timothy 1 Timothy 1 Timothy Greek
2 Timothy 2 Timothy 2 Timothy Greek
Titus Titus Titus Greek
Philemon Philemon Philemon Greek
General Epistles
Hebrews Hebrews[L 1] Hebrews Greek (or Hebrew?)[15]
James James[L 1] 1 Peter Greek
1 Peter 1 Peter 2 Peter Greek
2 Peter 2 Peter 1 John Greek
1 John 1 John 2 John Greek
2 John 2 John 3 John Greek
3 John 3 John James Greek
Jude Jude[L 1] Jude Greek
Book of Revelation Book of Revelation[L 1] Book of Revelation Greek

The Ethiopian Orthodox Church has a few additional books in its canon: Jubilees, Book of Enoch, 4 Baruch along with three books of Meqabyan that are unique to their canon.

The Peshitta excludes 2-3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation, but Bibles of the modern Syriac Orthodox Church include later translations of those books along with the Letter of Baruch (sometimes included as part of 2 Baruch). Still today the official lectionary followed by the Syrian Orthodox Church (with headquarters at Kottayam (Kerala), and the Chaldean Syriac Church, also known as the Church of the East (Nestorian), with headquarters at Trichur (Kerala)) presents lessons from only the twenty-two books of Peshitta, the version to which appeal is made for the settlement of doctrinal questions.

The Third Epistle to the Corinthians and the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were once considered part of the Armenian Orthodox Bible, but are no longer printed with modern editions.

Chart Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 These four works were questioned or "spoken against" by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran body since. Traditional German Luther Bibles are still printed with the New Testament in this changed "Lutheran" order.

Protestant Canon

Old Testament

As defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith.

New Testament

As defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith.

Anglican Apocrypha

These are the Apocrypha as defined by the Thirty-nine Articles of Anglicanism to be "read for example of life" but not used "to establish any doctrine".[1] Luther made a parallel statement in calling them: "not considered equal to the Holy Scriptures, but are useful and good to read."[16] These books are listed in the order of the 1611 KJV, which closely follows the order of the Vulgate.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 The foundational Thirty-Nine Articles of Anglicanism, in Article VI, asserts that these disputed books are not (to be) used "to establish any doctrine," but "read for example of life." Though the "Biblical apocrypha" are still used in Anglican Liturgy, ("Two of the hymns used in the American Prayer Book office of Morning Prayer, the Benedictus es and Benedicite, are taken from the Apocrypha. One of the offertory sentences in Holy Communion comes from an apocryphal book (Tob. 4: 8-9). Lessons from the Apocrypha are regularly appointed to be read in the daily, Sunday, and special services of Morning and Evening Prayer. There are altogether 111 such lessons in the latest revised American Prayer Book Lectionary [The books used are: II Esdras, Tobit, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Three Holy Children, and I Maccabees.]" —The Apocrypha, Bridge of the Testaments), the modern trend has been to not even print the Old Testament apocrypha in editions of Anglican-used Bibles, the last English translation for the Biblical Apocrypha being the Revised Standard Version of 1957.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Names in brackets are the Septuagint names and are often used by the Orthodox Christians.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Some Eastern Orthodox churches follow the Septuagint and the Hebrew bibles by considering the books of Ezra and Nehemiah as one book.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The Catholic and Orthodox Book of Esther includes 103 verses not in the Protestant Book of Esther.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 The Latin Vulgate, Douay-Rheims, and Revised Standard Version Catholic Edition place First and Second Maccabees after Malachi; other Catholic translations place them after Esther.
  6. Eastern Orthodox churches include Psalm 151, not present in all canons.
  7. The Book of Odes includes the Prayer of Manasseh. This book is not present in the Catholic or Protestant Old Testaments.
  8. 8.0 8.1 In Catholic Bibles, Baruch includes a sixth chapter called the Letter of Jeremiah. Baruch is not in the Protestant Bible or the Tanakh.
  9. Britannica 1911
  10. Eastern Orthodox Bibles have the books of Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah separate.
  11. New English Translation of the Septuagint
  12. 12.0 12.1 In Catholic and Orthodox Bibles, Daniel includes three sections not included in Protestant Bibles. The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Holy Children are included between Daniel 3:23-24. Susanna is included as Daniel 13. Bel and the Dragon is included as Daniel 14. These are not in the Protestant Old Testament.
  13. These books are found among the historical and wisdom books of the Christian canons.
  14. Most scholars consider the Gospel of Matthew to have been written in Koine Greek, though some experts maintain the view that it was originally composed in Aramaic or Hebrew. See Wikipedia's Gospel of Matthew and New Testament articles.
  15. Contemporary scholars believe the Hebrews to have been written in Greek, though a minority believe it was originally written in Hebrew, then translated into Greek by Luke. See Wikipedia's New Testament article.
  16. The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Fully Defining and Explaining All Religious Terms, Including Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Archæological and Doctrinal Themes, p.521, edited by Samuel Fallows et al, The Howard-Severance company, 1901,1910. - Google Books

External links

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