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Agnostic theism, also known as spiritual agnosticism, is the philosophical view that encompasses both theism and agnosticism. Per theism, an agnostic theist believes that the proposition at least one deity exists is true, but, per agnosticism, believes that the existence of gods are unknown or inherently unknowable. The agnostic theist may also or alternatively be agnostic regarding the properties of the god(s) they believe in. [1]

Views of agnostic theism

Agnostic theism is Belief but without Knowledge, as shown in purple and blue (see Epistemology).

There are numerous beliefs that can be included in agnostic theism, including Fideism, however not all agnostic theists are Fideists. Since agnosticism does not forbid belief in a deity, it is compatible with most theistic positions.

The classical philosophical understanding of knowledge is that knowledge is justified true belief. By this definition, it is reasonable to assert that one may hold a belief, and that belief may be true, without asserting that one knows it. The founder of logotherapy, Viktor Frankl, may have well exemplified this definition. Seidner expands upon this example and stresses Frankl's characterization of unconscious.[2] Agnostic theism could be interpreted as an admission that it is not possible to justify one's belief in a god sufficiently for it to be considered known. This may be because they consider faith a requirement of their religion, or because of the influence of plausible-seeming scientific or philosophical criticism.

Furthermore, a philosopher such as Søren Kierkegaard believed that knowledge of any deity is actually impossible, and because of that people who want to be theists must believe: "If I am capable of grasping God objectively, I do not believe, but precisely because I cannot do this I must believe."

Christian Agnostics (distinct from Christian agnostics) practice a distinct form of agnosticism that applies only to the properties of God. They hold that it is difficult or impossible to be sure of anything beyond the basic tenets of the Christian faith; that God exists, that Jesus has a special relationship with him and is in some way divine, that God should be worshipped and that humans should be compassionate toward one another. This belief system has deep roots in Judaism and the early days of the Church. [3]

Agnostic Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity of some form, but that, as in agnostic thought, the identity of said deity is unknown, or inherently impossible to prove.

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